Dr. Jay Woody is a diplomat of the American Board of Emergency Medicine, a Fellow of the American College of Emergency Medicine and is an Attending Physician at Parkland Health and Hospital System, Children's Medical Center of Dallas as well as several other north Texas facilities. He is a well-known and widely published authority in the field of emergency medicine and the former regional medical director of a freestanding emergency medicine practice.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Causes of eye pain fall into two broad categories: ocular pain and orbital pain.
Ocular pain is eye pain coming from the outer structures of the surface of the eye.
Conjunctivitis is one of the most common eye problems. Conjunctivitis can be an allergic, bacterial, chemical, or viral inflammation of the conjunctiva (the delicate membrane lining the eyelid and covering the eyeball). Pinkeye is a nonmedical term usually referring to a viral conjunctivitis, because the conjunctiva gets inflamed and turns a pinkish color. Pain is usually mild, or there is no pain at all. Itching, redness, and drainage are typical symptoms associated with conjunctivitis.
Corneal abrasions and corneal ulcerations are also common causes of eye pain. The cornea is the transparent surface of the eye. Abrasions occur from scratches to the surface of the cornea, such as from a foreign body in the eye or overuse of contact lenses. Ulcerations occur from infections or abrasions. Foreign bodies, usually located on the cornea or in the conjunctiva, are objects or materials that give you the sensation that something is in your eye. Foreign bodies produce eye pain similar to that of corneal abrasions.
Chemical burns and flash burns are significant causes of eye pain. Chemical burns come from eye exposure to acid or alkaline substances, such as household cleaners or bleach. Flash burns occur from intense light sources, such as arc welding or tanning booths, when improper eye protection is worn. Even an intense sunny day can cause a flash burn.
Blepharitis causes eye pain when an inflammation of the eyelid is caused by plugged oil glands at the eyelid edges.
A sty or a chalazion causes eye pain because of local irritation. Both cause a lump you can see or feel within the eyelid formed by a blocked oil gland. This lump causes irritation to the eye, can be very painful to the touch, and is seen in both children and adults.
Orbital pain is described as a deep, dull ache behind or in the eye. This pain is often caused by diseases of the eye.
Glaucoma can cause orbital pain, although most
cases of glaucoma are painless. Glaucoma is caused by an increase in intraocular pressure, or internal eye pressure, which can ultimately lead to defects in vision and even blindness if left untreated. Intraocular pressure can increase because of a blockage of outflow or increased production of aqueous humor (the fluid that bathes the inner eye). This is typically seen in older adults.
Iritis is an inflammation of the iris, or colored part of the eye, that causes deep eye pain.
Optic neuritis is an inflammation of the optic nerve. The optic nerve connects to the back of the eye. The cause of this inflammation can be from multiple sclerosis, viral infections, or bacterial infections and can cause symptoms such as pressure behind the eye along with visual changes and eye pain.
Sinusitis, which is a bacterial or viral infection of the sinuses, can cause a sensation of orbital
or eye socket pain.
Migraines are a very common cause of orbital eye pain associated with headaches.
Traumatic events, such as a penetrating injury to the eye, a blow to the eye with a foreign object, and motor vehicle collisions, are causes of significant eye pain and injury. Scratches to the cornea typically associated with traumatic events are very painful. These are a common eye problem that leads people to seek medical attention.