Flu Vaccine (cont.)
Future Flu Vaccines
There are many researchers looking for ways to protect humans with vaccines
against both seasonal and pandemic flu outbreaks. It is likely that new
developments in vaccine synthesis and production will be used in the next few
years, like the recombinant DNA Flublok vaccine introduced for the 2013-2014 flu season. In the private sector, Novavax, Inc., announced
favorable outcomes in Mexico with its initial trial (stage A) of VLP ("virus-like particle") H1N1
vaccine in about 1,000 people. VLP vaccines are made from the viral coat
antigens but contain no live genetic material (viral genome). VLPs can be
designed to match individual viral strains and are produced quickly with
portable cell-culture technology instead of egg-based cultures that require
significant time and materials to produce vaccine. Researchers in Israel are
trying to produce a vaccine that may be effective against all flu strains and
report that the experimental vaccine has completed its initial trial in Israel.
The vaccine is based on developing an antibody and cellular immune response to
epitopes (antigens) that are found in all strains of influenza viruses.
If ongoing experimental studies show effective protection and successful
adaptation to mass production, vaccines against the flu will be markedly changed
to the benefit of all.
In addition, a new vaccine has been developed to prevent or decrease the effects of influenza in dogs (Novibac canine flu H3N8), but not all vets suggest vaccination. Many vets suggest vaccination of only high-risk dogs (for example, dogs housed together in closed rooms). Currently, there is no evidence that dog flu infects humans.
Other flu vaccines that may be developed in the near future may be a vaccine against the new H3N2v strain that is currently undergoing transfer from pigs to humans; in addition, there may be a vaccine developed in the future against the bird flu.
In the next few years, there may be additional substantial changes in the way vaccines are made; some researchers suggest the new vaccines also may be able to protect people against a wider range of viral types.
Author and Editor
Author: Charles P. Davis, MD, PhD
Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, Chief Medical Editor, eMedicineHealth.com
Davis, Charles P. "Flu (Influenza)." MedicineNet.com. Jan. 12, 2011. <http://www.medicinenet.com/influenza/article.htm>.
Davis, Charles P. "Swine Flu (Swine Influenza A [H1N1] Virus)." MedicineNet.com. June 1, 2010. <http://www.medicinenet.com/swine_flu/article.htm>.
Greenberg, M.E., M.H. Lai, G.F. Hartel, et al. "Response to a
Monovalent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Vaccine." N Engl J Med 361 Dec. 17,
Monto, A.S., S.E. Ohmit, J.G. Petrie, et al. "Comparative Efficacy of
Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines." N Engl J Med 361
Sept. 24, 2009:1260.
Nolan, T ., J. McVernon, M. Skeljo, et al. "Immunogenicity of a
Monovalent 2009 Influenza A(H1N1) Vaccine in Infants and Children." JAMA 303.1 Dec. 21, 2009: 2010.
Stöppler, Melissa Conrad. "Flu Vaccination." MedicineNet.com. Nov. 2, 2009. <http://www.medicinenet.com/flu_vaccination/
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)." Aug. 16, 2012.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine." Aug. 19, 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/children.htm>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Influenza Vaccine 2012-2013." July 2, 2012. <http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/downloads/vis-flu.pdf>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Intradermal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination." July 6, 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/vaccine/qa_intradermal-vaccine.htm>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Key Facts About Seasonal Flu Vaccine." Sept. 21, 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/keyfacts.htm>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "The Nasal-Spray Flu Vaccine (Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine [LAIV])." Sept. 21, 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/FLU/about/qa/nasalspray.htm>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Proposed Influenza Vaccination Recommendations for 2012-2013." June 20, 2012.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Selecting the Viruses in the Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine." Mar. 9, 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/Flu/professionals/vaccination/virusqa.htm>.
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United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Vaccine Effectiveness - How Well Does the Flu Vaccine Work?" Oct. 13, 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/qa/vaccineeffect.htm>.
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United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Who Should Get Vaccinated Against Influenza." Sept. 9, 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/whoshouldvax.htm>.
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 10/3/2013
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