Foreign Travel Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Foreign Travel article.

Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Abdominal pain: Pain in the belly. Abdominal pain can be acute or chronic. It may reflect ...

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Acetaminophen: A nonaspirin pain reliever or analgesic. Acetaminophen may be given alone t...

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Acquired: Not inherited, or present at birth (congenital), but developing after birth. For...

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Acute: Of abrupt onset, in reference to a disease. Acute often also connotes an illness th...

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Acute illness: A disease with an abrupt onset and, usually, a short course.

Altitude sickness: Altitude sickness (or altitude illness) is a disorder caused by being a...

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Antibiotic: A drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms. ...

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Anxiety: A feeling of apprehension and fear, characterized by physical symptoms such as pa...

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Aspirin: Once the Bayer trademark for acetylsalicylic acid, now the common name for this a...

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B virus: An infectious agent commonly found among macaque monkeys, including rhesus macaqu...

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Bacteria: Single-celled microorganisms that can exist either as independent (free-living) ...

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Bacterial: Of or pertaining to bacteria, as in a bacterial lung infection.

BCG: An effective immunization against tuberculosis. BCG stands for Bacille Calmette Gueri...

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Blood clots: Blood that has been converted from a liquid to a solid state. Also called a t...

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Booster shot: An additional dose of a vaccine needed periodically to 'boost' the immune sy...

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Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Brain swelling: See: Cerebral edema.

Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Capsule: Capsule has many meanings in medicine including the following:

  1. In medici...

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CDC: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US agency charged with tracking a...

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: The US agency charged with tracking and invest...

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Chills: feelings of coldness accompanied by shivering. Chills may develop after exposure t...

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Cholera: An infectious disease characterized by intense vomiting and profuse watery diarrh...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Chronic disease: A disease that persists for a long time. A chronic disease is one lasting...

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Cirrhosis: Liver disease characterized by irreversible scarring. Alcohol and viral hepatit...

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Coma: A state of deep, unarousable unconsciousness. A coma may occur as a result of head t...

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Cortisone: A naturally occurring adrenocorticoid hormone that is produced in minute amount...

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Cough: A rapid expulsion of air from the lungs, typically in order to clear the lung airwa...

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Cuts: Severed skin. Washing a cut or scrape with soap and water and keeping it clean and d...

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Decompression: 1. In general, the removal of pressure.
2. In surgery, ...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Diarrhea: A common condition that involves unusually frequent and liquid bowel movements. ...

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Doxycycline: Brand name: Vibramycin. A synthetic broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from te...

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Edema: The swelling of soft tissues as a result of excess fluid accumulation. Edema is oft...

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Electrocardiogram: A recording of the electrical activity of the heart. Abbreviated ECG an...

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Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain, which may be caused by a bacterium, a virus, or a...

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Epidemic: The occurrence of more cases of a disease than would be expected in a community...

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Fatigue: A condition characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency ...

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Feces: The excrement discharged from the 'intestines.

Fetus: An unborn offspring, from the embryo stage (the end of the eighth week after concep...

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Fever: Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 degr...

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Gamma globulin: A major class of immunoglobulins found in the blood, including many of th...

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Gestation: The period of time from conception to birth.

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Headache: A pain in the head with the pain being above the eyes or the ears, behind the he...

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Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, irrespective of the cause. Hepatitis is caused by a ...

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Hepatitis A: Inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is usua...

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Hepatitis B: Inflammation of the liver due to the hepatitis B virus (HBV), once thought t...

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Herbal: 1. An adjective, referring to herbs, as in an herbal tea.
2. A...

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Hygiene: The science of preventive medicine and the preservation of health. Also commonly ...

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Immune: Protected against infection, usually by the presence of antibodies.

Immunity: The condition of being immune. Immunity can be innate'for example, humans are in...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Inflammation: A localized reaction that produces redness, warmth, swelling, and pain as a ...

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Influenza: The flu is caused by viruses that infect the respiratory tract which are divide...

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Injury: Harm or hurt. To harm, hurt, or wound. The word injure may be in physical or emot...

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Insecticide: A chemical used specifically to kill or control the growth of insects. Certa...

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Internal medicine: The medical specialty dedicated to the diagnosis and medical treatment ...

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Japanese encephalitis: A mosquito-borne flavivirus infection that is the leading cause of ...

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Jaundice: Yellow staining of the skin and sclerae (the whites of the eyes) by abnormally h...

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Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Labor: Childbirth, the process of delivering a baby and the placenta, membranes, and umbil...

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Laxative: Something that promotes emptying of the bowels. Laxatives are used to combat con...

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Lethargy: Abnormal drowsiness, stupor.

Liter: A metric measure of capacity that is equal to the volume of 1 kilogram of water at ...

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Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Malaria: An infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites from the Plasmodium family th...

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Measles: An acute and highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever, runny nose,...

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Medical history: 1. In clinical medicine, the patient's past and present which may ...

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Meningitis: Inflammation of the meninges, the three membranes that envelop the brain and t...

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Meningococcal meningitis: Inflammation of the meninges due to infection with the bacterium...

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Meningococcal vaccine: A vaccine to prevent meningococcal infection, including meningococc...

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Motion sickness: A disorder of the sense of balance and equilibrium and, hence, the sense ...

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Mountain sickness: Also known as altitude sickness or altitude illness, this is a disorder...

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Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

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Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Nausea: Stomach queasiness, the urge to vomit. Nausea can be brought on by many causes, in...

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Neck: The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constric...

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Nerve: A bundle of fibers that uses electrical and chemical signals to transmit sensory an...

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Nutrition: 1) The science or practice of taking in and utilizing foods. 2) A nourishing ...

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Ointment: An oil-based preparation that is applied to the skin. Whereas an ointment has an...

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Onset: In medicine, the first appearance of the signs or symptoms of an illness as, for ex...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Paralysis: Loss of voluntary movement (motor function). Paralysis that affects only one mu...

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Pestis: The plague. An infectious disease due to a bacteria called Yersinia pestis.

Pharmacy: A location where prescription medications are sold. A pharmacy is constantly sup...

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Piercing: Using a sharp instrument, usually a needle, to make a temporary or permanent ...

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Plague: The plague is an infectious disease due to a bacteria called Yersinia pestis.

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Polio: Abbreviation for poliomyelitis, an acute and sometimes devastating disease caused ...

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Pregnancy: The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. Thi...

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Pregnant: The state of carrying a developing fetus within the body.

Prescription: A physician's order for the preparation and administration of a drug or dev...

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Primary care: A patient's main source for regular medical care, ideally providing continui...

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Pulmonary: Having to do with the lungs.

Pulmonary edema: Fluid in the lungs.

Rabies: A potentially fatal viral infection that attacks the central nervous system. Rabie...

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Rash: Breaking out (eruption) of the skin. A rash can be caused by an underlying medical c...

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Remedy: Something that consistently helps treat or cure a disease.

Respiratory: Having to do with respiration.

Saliva: a watery secretion in the mouth produced by the salivary glands that aids in the d...

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Scopolamine: A naturally occurring member of a large chemical class of compounds called a...

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Shortness of breath: Difficulty in breathing. Medically referred to as dyspnea. Shortness ...

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Smallpox: A highly contagious and frequently fatal viral disease that is characterized by ...

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SPF (sun protection factor): A number on a scale for rating the degree of protection prov...

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Spinal cord: The major column of nerve tissue that is connected to the brain and lies with...

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Stomach: The digestive organ that is located in the upper abdomen, under the ribs. The upp...

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Stool: The solid matter that is discharged in a bowel movement.

Strain: 1. An injury to a tendon or muscle resulting from overuse or trauma. 2. A heredita...

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Sunscreen: A substance that blocks the effect of the sun's harmful rays. Using lotions tha...

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Symptom: Any subjective evidence of disease. In contrast, a sign is objective. Blood comin...

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Taste: A perception that results from stimulation of a gustatory nerve. Taste belongs to t...

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Tetanus: An often fatal infectious disease that is caused by the bacterium Clostridium tet...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Thermometer: A device used to measure the temperature of gaseous, liquid or solid matter ...

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Thyroid: 1. The thyroid gland. Also, pertaining to the thyroid gland. 2. A p...

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Tick: A small wingless bloodsucking insect that, along with the mite, belongs to the order...

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Ticks: Small wingless bloodsucking insects that, along with the mite, belongs to the order...

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Tongue: A strong muscle that is anchored to the floor of the mouth. The tongue is covered ...

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Topical: Pertaining to a particular surface area. For example, a topical agent is applied ...

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Travel medicine: A branch of medicine that specializes in diseases and conditions that are...

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Traveler's diarrhea: Diarrhea that results from infections acquired while traveling to ano...

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Tuberculosis: A highly contagious infection caused by the bacterium called Mycobacterium ...

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Typhoid: See: Typhoid fever.

Typhoid fever: An acute illness characterized by fever caused by infection with the bacter...

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Urine: Liquid waste produced by the kidneys. Urine is a clear, transparent fluid that norm...

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Vaccination: Injection of a killed microbe in order to stimulate the immune system against...

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Vaccines: Microbial preparations of killed or modified microorganisms that can stimulate a...

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Vaginal yeast infection: Infection of the vagina caused by a fungus known as Candida...

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Viral: Of or pertaining to a virus. For example, if a person has a viral rash, the rash wa...

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Viral hepatitis: Liver inflammation caused by a virus. Specific hepatitis viruses have bee...

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Viral infection: Infection caused by the presence of a virus in the body. Depending on...

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Virus: A microorganism that is smaller than a bacterium that cannot grow or reproduce apar...

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Watermelon: A fruit of African origin that is, in reality, a vegetable related to cucumber...

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World Health Organization: The subagency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with...

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Yeast infection: Overgrowth of yeast can affect the skin (yeast rash), mouth (thrush), di...

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Yellow fever: An acute systemic (bodywide) illness caused by a virus called a Flavivirus. ...

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Yellow fever vaccination: A live attenuated (weakened) viral vaccine for yellow fever. Yel...

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Yersinia: A group of bacteria that appear rod-like under the microscope and include Yersin...

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Yersinia pestis: The bacteria that causes the bubonic plague which in the year 541 (as the...

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Medical Dictionary