Endoscopy Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Endoscopy article.

Abdomen: The belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the...

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Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Abdominal pain: Pain in the belly. Abdominal pain can be acute or chronic. It may reflect ...

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Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Acute: Of abrupt onset, in reference to a disease. Acute often also connotes an illness th...

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Anemia: The condition of having a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells or quantity ...

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Anesthetic: A substance that causes lack of feeling or awareness, dulling pain to permit s...

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Anus: The opening of the rectum to the outside of the body.

Artery: A vessel that carries blood high in oxygen content away from the heart to the far...

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Aspiration: Removal of a sample of fluid and cells through a needle. Aspiration also re...

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Aspirin: Once the Bayer trademark for acetylsalicylic acid, now the common name for this a...

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Bacteria: Single-celled microorganisms that can exist either as independent (free-living) ...

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Barium: 1. A metallic element belonging to the alkaline earths with an atomic numbe...

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Barium enema: An enema using a white, chalky solution containing barium, in preparation fo...

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Barrett esophagus: A complication of chronic severe gastrointestinal reflux disease (GERD)...

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Barrett's esophagus: A complication of severe chronic GERD (gastrointestinal reflux dise...

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Biopsy: The removal of a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope to check for ...

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Blood pressure: The blood pressure is the pressure of the blood within the arteries. It is...

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Bowel: The small and large intestine.

Breathing: The process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through ...

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Caecum: The caecum (also spelled cecum), the first portion of the large bowel, situated in...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Cardiac: Having to do with the heart.

Cervical: Having to do with any kind of neck, including the neck on which the head is perc...

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Chest: The area of the body located between the neck and the abdomen. The chest contains t...

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Chest pain: Pain in the chest that can be a result of many things, including angina, heart...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: COPD. Any disorder that persistently obstructs bron...

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Cirrhosis: Liver disease characterized by irreversible scarring. Alcohol and viral hepatit...

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Colon: The long, coiled, tubelike organ that removes water from digested food. The remaini...

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Colonoscopy: A procedure whereby a physician inserts a viewing tube (colonoscope) into the...

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Coronary artery disease: Impedance or blockage of one or more arteries that supply blood t...

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Dehydration: Excessive loss of body water. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that ca...

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Depression: An illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and that affects the way...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Diarrhea: A common condition that involves unusually frequent and liquid bowel movements. ...

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Diverticulitis: Inflammation of the diverticula (small outpouchings) along the wall of th...

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EGD: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy.

Endoscope: A lighted optical instrument that is used to get a deep look inside the body. A...

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Endoscopy: Examination of the inside of the body by using a lighted, flexible instrument c...

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Enema: Liquid injected into the rectum. An enema may be used for therapeutic (such as to s...

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Enteroscopy: The use of a flexible instrument (a "scope") to examine the small intestine, ...

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Esophageal: Related to the esophagus.

Esophageal cancer: A malignant tumor of the esophagus. The risk of cancer of the esophagus...

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Esophagogastroduodenoscopy: Also known as EGD or upper endoscopy. A procedure that enables...

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Esophagus: The tube that connects the pharynx (throat) with the stomach. The esophagus lie...

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Esophagus cancer: See: Esophageal cancer.

Family history: The family structure and relationships within the family, including inform...

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Fecal: Relating to the feces, the stool. The excrement discharged from the intestines.

Feces: The excrement discharged from the 'intestines.

Fever: Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 degr...

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Gastric: Having to do with the stomach.

Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach.

Gastroesophageal: Pertaining to both the stomach and the esophagus, as in the gastroesopha...

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Gastroesophageal reflux: The return of stomach contents back up into the esophagus This fr...

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Gastrointestinal: Adjective referring collectively to the stomach and small and large inte...

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Gastrointestinal tract: The stomach and intestines. Abbreviated GI tract.

GERD: Gastroesophageal reflux disease.

GI tract: Short for gastrointestinal tract. See: Gastrointestinal tract.

Graft: Healthy skin, bone, kidney, liver, or other tissue that is taken from one part of t...

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Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Heart attack: The death of heart muscle due to the loss of blood supply. The loss of bloo...

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Heartburn: An uncomfortable feeling of burning and warmth occurring in waves rising up be...

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Helicobacter pylori: A bacterium that causes stomach inflammation (gastritis) and ulcers i...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Inflammation: A localized reaction that produces redness, warmth, swelling, and pain as a ...

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Injury: Harm or hurt. To harm, hurt, or wound. The word injure may be in physical or emot...

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Inpatient: A patient whose care requires a stay in a hospital. As opposed to an outpatient...

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Intestine: The long, tubelike organ in the abdomen that completes the process of digestion...

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Large bowel: Another name for the large intestine.

Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Low blood pressure: Any blood pressure that is below the normal expected for an individua...

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Magnesium: A mineral involved in many processes in the body including nerve signaling, the...

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Malabsorption: Poor intestinal absorption of nutrients. Malabsorption can occur from disea...

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Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

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Mucous: Pertaining to mucus, a thick fluid produced by the lining of some tissues of the b...

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Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Nausea: Stomach queasiness, the urge to vomit. Nausea can be brought on by many causes, in...

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Nerve: A bundle of fibers that uses electrical and chemical signals to transmit sensory an...

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Numb: Numb, or numbness is a loss of the sensation of feeling in an area of the body. Numb...

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Outpatient: A patient who is not hospitalized, but instead comes to a physician?s office, ...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Pediatrics: The field of medicine that is concerned with the health of infants, children, ...

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Pelvis: The lower part of the abdomen, located between the hip bones. Structures in the fe...

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Peptic ulcer: An ulcer in the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus. Peptic ulcers...

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Peritonitis: Inflammation of the peritoneum (The peritoneum is the tissue layer of cells l...

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Pharmacy: A location where prescription medications are sold. A pharmacy is constantly sup...

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Polyp: A mass of tissue that develops on the inside wall of a hollow organ, such as the co...

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Pregnancy: The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. Thi...

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Probe: (1) In surgery, a probe is a slender flexible rod with a blunt end used to e...

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Proctosigmoidoscopy: An examination of the rectum and the lower part of the colon, using a...

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Pulmonary: Having to do with the lungs.

Rectum: The last 6 to 8 inches of the large intestine. The rectum stores solid waste until...

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Reflux: The term used when liquid backs up into the esophagus from the stomach.

Respiratory: Having to do with respiration.

Saliva: a watery secretion in the mouth produced by the salivary glands that aids in the d...

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Shock: In medicine, a critical condition that is brought on by a sudden drop in blood flow...

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Sigmoidoscopy: A procedure in which a physician inserts a viewing tube (sigmoidoscope) int...

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Small bowel: Another name for the small intestine.

Small intestine: The part of the digestive tract that extends from the stomach to the larg...

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Spine: 1) The column of bone known as the vertebral column, which surrounds and protects ...

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Stomach: The digestive organ that is located in the upper abdomen, under the ribs. The upp...

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Surgeon: A physician who treats disease, injury, or deformity via operative or manual meth...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Syndrome: A combination of symptoms and signs that together represent a disease process.

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Tear: A drop of the salty secretion of the lacrimal glands which serves to moisten the con...

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Throat: The throat is the anterior (front) portion of the neck beginning at the back of th...

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Topical: Pertaining to a particular surface area. For example, a topical agent is applied ...

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Transverse: In anatomy, a horizontal plane passing through the standing body so that the t...

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Trimester: In obstetrics, one of the three divisions of three months each during pregnancy...

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Tumor: An abnormal mass of tissue. Tumors are a classic sign of inflammation, and can be ...

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Ulcer: A lesion that is eroding away the skin or mucous membrane. Ulcers can have various ...

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Vagus nerve: A nerve that supplies nerve fibers to the pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box...

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Vessel: A tube in the body that carries fluids. Examples of vessels are blood vessels and ...

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Weight loss: Weight loss is a decrease in body weight resulting from either voluntary (die...

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Windpipe: The trachea, a tube-like portion of the respiratory (breathing) tract that conn...

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X-ray: High-energy radiation with waves shorter than those of visible light. X-ray is used...

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Medical Dictionary