Growth Failure in Children Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Growth Failure in Children article.

Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Acetate: A molecular ion derived from acetic acid. The formula of acetate is CH3COO-.

Achondroplasia: The most common form of short stature with disproportionately short limbs ...

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Arms: An appendage in anatomy and in clinical trials. See: Arm.

Blood count: The calculated number of white or red blood cells (WBCs or RBCs) in a cubic m...

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Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Brain tumor: A benign or malignant growth in the brain. Primary brain tumors initially for...

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Cartilage: Firm, rubbery tissue that cushions bones at joints. A flexible kind of cartilag...

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Child abuse: A complex set of behaviors that include child neglect and the physical, emoti...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Circulatory: Having to do with circulation, the movement of fluid in a regular or circuito...

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Complete blood count: A set values of the cellular (formed elements) of blood. These meas...

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Connective tissue: A material made up of fibers forming a framework and support structure...

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Down syndrome: A common birth defect that is usually due to an extra chromosome 21 (trisom...

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Dwarfism: Abnormally short stature. Some forms are hereditary. The Little People of Americ...

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Electrolyte: A substance that dissociates into ions in solution and acquires the capacity ...

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Endocrine: Pertaining to hormones and the glands that make and secrete them into the blood...

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Familial: A condition that tends to occur more often in family members than is expected by...

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FDA: Food and Drug Administration.

Food and Drug Administration: An agency within the US Public Health Service that provides ...

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Gastrointestinal: Adjective referring collectively to the stomach and small and large inte...

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Genes: The basic biological units of heredity. Segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nee...

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Genetic: Having to do with genes and genetic
information.

Genetics: The scientific study of heredity. Genetics pertains to humans and all other orga...

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Growth hormone: A hormone made in the pituitary gland that stimulates the release of anoth...

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Hormone: A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activit...

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Human growth: See: Normal growth.

Hypochondroplasia: A type of short-limb dwarfism, with shortening especially of the ends o...

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Hypothyroid: Deficiency of thyroid hormone which is normally made by the thyroid gland wh...

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Idiopathic: Of unknown cause. Any disease that is of uncertain or unknown origin may be te...

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Intervention: The act of intervening, interfering or interceding with the intent of modify...

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Intrauterine: In the uterus.

Intrauterine growth retardation: Abnormally slow growth of a fetus. When the baby is born,...

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Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Lungs: The lungs are a pair of breathing organs located with the chest which remove carbon...

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Malnutrition: A term used to refer to any condition in which the body does not receive eno...

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MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging.

Normal growth rate: The speed with which normal growth occurs in length before birth and i...

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Normal range: Characteristic of 95 percent of values from a normal population. The remaini...

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Nutrition: 1: The process of taking in food and using it for growth, metabolism, and repai...

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Pediatric: Pertaining to children.

Percentile: The percentage of individuals in a group who have achieved a certain quantity'...

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Pituitary: 1. As an adjective, pertaining to the pituitary gland or its hormonal se...

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Pituitary dwarfism: Dwarfism caused by a lack of growth hormone, usually due to malfuncti...

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Prader-Willi syndrome: A syndrome characterized by severe hypotonia (floppiness), poor suc...

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Prepubertal: Before puberty, the period during which secondary sex characteristics start t...

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Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Puberty: Adolescence, the period in which the human body first becomes capable of reproduc...

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Receptor: 1. In cell biology, a structure on the surface of a cell (or inside a cel...

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Rule out: Term used in medicine, meaning to eliminate or exclude something from considera...

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Sedimentation rate: A blood test that detects and monitors inflammation in the body. Abbre...

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Serum: The clear liquid that can be separated from clotted blood. Serum differs from plas...

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Somatotropin: A growth hormone that is produced by the anterior pituitary (the front part ...

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Somatropin: Growth hormone made by the pituitary gland or a synthetic version of that horm...

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Syndrome: A combination of symptoms and signs that together represent a disease process.

Systemic: Affecting the entire body. A systemic disease such as diabetes can affect the wh...

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Testosterone: A "male hormone" -- a sex hormone produced by the testes that encourages th...

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Therapeutic: Relating to therapeutics, the branch of medicine that is concerned specifical...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Thyroid: 1. The thyroid gland. Also, pertaining to the thyroid gland. 2. A p...

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Thyroid hormone: A chemical substance made by the thyroid gland for export into the bloods...

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Thyroxine: A hormone that is made by the thyroid gland and is one of the most important th...

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Tumor: An abnormal mass of tissue. Tumors are a classic sign of inflammation, and can be ...

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Turner syndrome: The most common sex chromosome disorder in females, characterized by shor...

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Uterus: A hollow, pear-shaped organ that is located in a woman's lower abdomen, between th...

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Wrist: The part of the hand that is nearest the forearm and consists of the carpal bones a...

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