Heart Tests: When Do You Need Them
Heart tests can be very helpful in finding out what kind of heart problem you have and what treatment you need.
These tests help doctors find out what's causing new symptoms, such as discomfort in your chest, shortness of breath, or irregular heartbeats. They can also:
- Check your heart's electrical system.
- Check your pacemaker or other implanted device.
- See if your heart can handle more exercise.
- Check how well your heart valves are working.
But they may not be helpful if your doctor doesn't have a specific reason for the test—for example, when you don't have heart disease or your treatment for heart disease isn't causing any problems.
Sometimes doctors automatically schedule routine tests because they think that's what patients expect. But experts say that routine heart tests can be a waste of time and money.
Common heart tests that experts agree aren't needed as a matter of routine include:
Why might you need a test?
Doctors order heart tests for many reasons. For example, the test can find out what's causing symptoms like unexplained chest pain, shortness of breath, or irregular heartbeats.
Heart tests can be appropriate for a healthy person. This happens when a personal history or physical exam points to risk for a heart problem. For example, an athlete may be at risk for a heart problem associated with exercise. So a test such as an exercise electrocardiogram can be done before he or she takes part in competitive sports.
Here are some other reasons why you might need certain kinds of heart tests:
Other reasons for heart tests
What the test does
Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG):
- Checks your heart's electrical system and heart rhythm
- Finds out if chest pain is caused by a heart attack or angina
- Checks how well your pacemaker or other implanted device is working
- Checks for abnormal changes in your heart during exercise
- Helps find the cause of unexplained chest pain
- Makes sure your heart is healthy enough for physical activity, especially when you have not been physically active for a while and want to start a new exercise program
- Sees how well you can handle exercise after you have had a heart attack or heart surgery
- Helps find the cause of unexplained chest pain or shortness of breath
- Checks for signs of diseases that affect the walls and chambers of the heart
- Finds out how well your heart is pumping blood
- Regularly checks to see how your heart valves are working if you have a valve disease or you have an artificial valve
Coronary calcium scan:
- Helps your doctor find out your risk for a heart attack, especially when you are at medium risk
- Helps your doctor decide if you should change your treatment for heart disease
When should you say "no" to a test?
Heart tests help a lot when your doctor is trying to find out what's wrong, which treatment to use, or how well a certain treatment is working.
But experts say that many tests aren't needed—even for heart patients—when everything is fine and you're just having a checkup. Sometimes doctors automatically schedule routine tests because they think that's what patients expect.
Here's what experts say about common heart tests that are sometimes ordered when they're not needed:
- Routine electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG): You may see ads telling you that "screening" EKGs are a good way to protect your health. "Screening" means having a test when you don't have any symptoms. But even if you are a heart patient, a routine EKG just isn't needed as long as you have no new symptoms and you see your doctor several times a year.
- Exercise EKG: If you're healthy and have no symptoms of heart disease, you can say "no" to this test, often called a stress test or treadmill test. In younger people who don't have symptoms of heart disease, an exercise EKG can actually cause needless worry. This is because it can show that you have heart problems when you really don't.
- Echo: An echocardiogram isn't recommended as a routine test if you are healthy, have no heart problems, and have a low risk for heart disease. If you have coronary artery disease, you probably don't need this test unless you have new symptoms. It's not helpful for patients with mild heart murmurs. But if you have certain heart problems, like a valve disease or heart failure, your doctor needs to check your heart regularly with this test.
- Exercise echo: This test isn't recommended if you're healthy and have no symptoms of heart disease.
- Calcium scan: This test isn't recommended if you don't have risk factors for heart disease or you are at high risk of heart disease. In either case, the test won't tell you and your doctor anything you don't already know. But if your risk is medium, the test may tell you whether you need to take action to prevent a heart attack in the next few years.
- Heart Disease Risk: Should I Have a Coronary Calcium Scan?
How do you say "no" to your doctor?
The thought of saying "no" to a doctor makes a lot of people uncomfortable. But it's important to have a conversation about what the test is for. Asking a few questions is a great way to start that conversation. Try one or more of these questions:
- "This test probably costs a lot, and I'm trying to save money. Do you think the cost is worth it for me?"
- "How will this test help you treat my problem?"
- "Will this test give you information that will affect my treatment?"
- "How often is this test wrong? Could it say that I have a problem when I really don't?"
- "What will happen if I don't have this test?"