Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) article.

Acute: Of abrupt onset, in reference to a disease. Acute often also connotes an illness th...

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Blood glucose: The main sugar that the body makes from the food in the diet. Glucose is ca...

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Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Diabetes: Refers to diabetes mellitus or, less often, to diabetes insipidus. Diabetes mell...

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Fasting: : going without food or drink. Patients may be advised to fast for a certain peri...

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Fasting blood glucose: A test to determine how much glucose (sugar) is in a blood sample a...

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Glucose: The simple sugar that is the chief source of energy. Glucose is found in the bloo...

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Glycohemoglobin: Also known as glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin to which glucose is bou...

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Glycosylated hemoglobin: Hemoglobin to which glucose is bound. Glycosylated hemoglobin is...

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Hemoglobin: The oxygen-carrying pigment and predominant protein in the red blood cells. He...

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Hemoglobin A: Normal adult hemoglobin, the main type of hemoglobin found after infancy. Th...

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Hemoglobin A1c: A minor component of hemoglobin to which glucose is bound. Abbreviated HbA...

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Hyperglycemia: A high blood sugar. An elevated level specifically of the sugar glucose in...

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Hypoglycemia: Low blood sugar (glucose). Hypoglycemia may be associated with symptoms such...

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Insulin: A natural hormone made by the pancreas that controls the level of the sugar gluco...

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Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Molecule: The smallest unit of a substance that can exist alone and retain the character o...

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Pigment: A substance that gives color to tissue. Pigments are responsible for the colors o...

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Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Random: Determined solely by chance.

Red blood cells: The blood cells that carry oxygen. Red cells contain hemoglobin and it is...

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Sickle cell disease: A genetic blood disorder caused by the presence of an abnormal form ...

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Thalassemia: A group of genetic disorders that involve underproduction of hemoglobin, the ...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Uremia: The presence of excessive amounts of urea in the blood, which may be a sign of ki...

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