Hepatitis B (HBV, Hep B) Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Hepatitis B (HBV, Hep B) article.

Abdomen: The belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the...

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Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Acquired: Not inherited, or present at birth (congenital), but developing after birth. For...

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Acute: Of abrupt onset, in reference to a disease. Acute often also connotes an illness th...

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Alcoholism: Physical dependence on alcohol to the extent that stopping alcohol use would b...

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Antiviral: An agent that kills a virus or that suppresses its ability to replicate and, he...

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Ascites: An abnormal accumulation of fluid within the abdomen. There are many causes of as...

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B virus: An infectious agent commonly found among macaque monkeys, including rhesus macaqu...

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Belly: That part of the body that contains all of the structures between the chest and t...

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Biopsy: The removal of a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope to check for ...

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Breastfeeding: Feeding a child human breast milk. According to the American Academy of Ped...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Carcinoma: Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover body organs. Ex...

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Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Cirrhosis: Liver disease characterized by irreversible scarring. Alcohol and viral hepatit...

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Coma: A state of deep, unarousable unconsciousness. A coma may occur as a result of head t...

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Cough: A rapid expulsion of air from the lungs, typically in order to clear the lung airwa...

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CT scan: Computed tomography scan. Detailed images of internal organs are obtained by this...

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Cure: 1. To heal, to make well, to restore to good health. 2. A time withou...

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Dehydration: Excessive loss of body water. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that cau...

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Delirium: A sudden state of severe confusion and rapid changes in brain function, sometime...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Dialysis: The process of removing waste products and excess fluid from the body. Dialysis ...

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Diarrhea: A common condition that involves unusually frequent and liquid bowel movements. ...

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Digestive system: The system of organs responsible for getting food into and out of the bo...

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DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid. One of two types of molecules that encode genetic information...

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Donor: The giver of a tissue or an organ, such as a blood donor or kidney donor.

Emergency department: The department of a hospital responsible for the provision of medica...

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Encephalopathy: Disease, damage, or malfunction of the brain. In general, encephalopathy i...

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End-stage renal disease: ESRD. Chronic irreversible renal failure. Also known as Chronic...

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ENGERIX-B: A vaccine against the hepatitis B virus. ENGERIX-B stimulates the body's immune...

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Fatigue: A condition characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency ...

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FDA: Food and Drug Administration.

Fever: Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 F (37...

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Fingernail: A fingernail is produced by living skin cells in the finger. A fingernail cons...

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Flare: 1. an exacerbation of a chronic disease. Sometimes referred to as a flare-up, a fla...

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Flu: Flu is a colloquialism for influenza. The flu is an acute respiratory illness caused ...

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Food and Drug Administration: An agency within the US Public Health Service that provides ...

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Gastroenterologist: A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases...

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Genital: Pertaining to the external and/or internal organs of reproduction.

HBV: Hepatitis B virus. A virus which primarily causes inflammation of the liver. The hepa...

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Headache: A pain in the head with the pain being above the eyes or the ears, behind the he...

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Hemodialysis: A medical procedure to remove fluid and waste products from the blood and to...

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Hemophilia: An inherited disorder in which the ability of blood to clot normally is impair...

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Hepatic: Having to do with the liver.

Hepatic encephalopathy: Brain dysfunction directly due to liver dysfunction, most often re...

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Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, irrespective of the cause. Hepatitis is caused by a ...

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Hepatitis A: Inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is usual...

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Hepatitis B: Inflammation of the liver due to the hepatitis B virus (HBV), once thought to...

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Hepatitis C: Inflammation of the liver due to the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is usuall...

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Hepatocellular carcinoma: A cancer arising from the liver cells (hepatocytes). Liver damag...

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Herbal: 1. An adjective, referring to herbs, as in an herbal tea.
2. A...

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HIV: Acronym for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the cause of AIDS (acquired immunodefi...

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Immune: Protected against infection, usually by the presence of antibodies.

Immune system: A complex system that is responsible for distinguishing a person from every...

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Indicate: In medicine, to make a treatment or procedure advisable because of a particular ...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Infectious hepatitis: See Hepatitis A.

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Inflammation: A localized reaction that produces redness, warmth, swelling, and pain as a ...

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Interferon: A naturally occurring substance that interferes with the ability of viruses t...

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Itching: An uncomfortable sensation in the skin that feels as if something is crawling on ...

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Jaundice: Yellow staining of the skin and sclerae (the whites of the eyes) by abnormally h...

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Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Lethargy: Abnormal drowsiness, stupor.

Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Liver biopsy: A procedure in which a small sample of the liver is removed for the diagnosi...

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Liver disease: Liver disease refers to any disorder of the liver. The liver is a large org...

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Liver transplant: Surgery to remove a diseased liver and replace it with a healthy liver (...

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Marker: A piece of DNA that lies on a chromosome so close to a gene that the marker and t...

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Membrane: A very thin layer of tissue that covers a 'surface.

Microscope: An optical instrument that augments the power of the eye to see small objects....

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Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

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Mucous: Pertaining to mucus, a thick fluid produced by the lining of some tissues of the b...

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Nausea: Stomach queasiness, the urge to vomit. Nausea can be brought on by many causes, in...

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Nose: The external midline projection from the face. The purpose of the nose is to warm, c...

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Nutrition: 1: The process of taking in food and using it for growth, metabolism, and repai...

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Organ: A relatively independent part of the body that carries out one or more special func...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Piercing: Using a sharp instrument, usually a needle, to make a temporary or permanent ...

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Pregnant: The state of carrying a developing fetus within the body.

Prescription: A physician's order for the preparation and administration of a drug or dev...

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Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan...

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Rectum: The last 6 to 8 inches of the large intestine. The rectum stores solid waste until...

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Relapse: The return of signs and symptoms of a disease after a remission.

Renal: Having to do with the kidney. For example, renal cancer is cancer of the kidneys.

Replication: A turning back, repetition, duplication, reproduction.

Rib: One of the 12 paired arches of bone that form the skeletal structure of the chest wal...

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Rib cage: The structure formed by the thoracic vertebrae and ribs, the sternum (breastbone...

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Rule out: Term used in medicine, meaning to eliminate or exclude something from considera...

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Safe sex: Sexual practices that do not involve the exchange of bodily fluids, including bl...

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Saliva: a watery secretion in the mouth produced by the salivary glands that aids in the d...

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Scan: As a noun, the data or image obtained from the examination of organs or regions of...

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Semen: The fluid that is released through the penis during orgasm. Semen is made up of flu...

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Sexually transmitted disease: Any disease transmitted by sexual contact; caused by microor...

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Sneeze: 1. As a verb, to suddenly expel air through the nose and mouth by an involu...

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Stage: As regards cancer, the extent of a cancer, especially whether the disease has spre...

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Stool: The solid matter that is discharged in a bowel movement.

Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Tattoo: The permanent insertion of ink below the skin, using a sharp instrument. Humans ha...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Tired: A feeling of a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency of accomplishment,...

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Transplant: The grafting of a tissue from one place to another, just as in botany a bu...

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Ultrasound: High-frequency sound waves. Ultra-sound waves can be bounced off tissues by us...

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Urine: Liquid waste produced by the kidneys. Urine is a clear, transparent fluid that norm...

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Viral: Of or pertaining to a virus. For example, if a person has a viral rash, the rash wa...

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Viral hepatitis: Liver inflammation caused by a virus. Specific hepatitis viruses have bee...

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Virus: A microorganism that is smaller than a bacterium that cannot grow or reproduce apar...

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Vomit: Matter from the stomach that has come up into and may be ejected beyond the mouth, ...

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Wasting: 1. Gradual loss (for example, of weight), deterioration, emaciation. As in...

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Weight loss: Weight loss is a decrease in body weight resulting from either voluntary (die...

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Medical Dictionary