High Blood Pressure (cont.)
High Blood Pressure Medications
It may take trial and error to find the proper medication or combination of medications that will help control hypertension in each case. It is important to take the medications as prescribed and only discontinue them on the advice of your health care
Water Pills (diuretics)
- Diuretics are used very widely to control mildly high blood pressure, and
are often used in combination with other medications.
- They increase sodium excretion and urine output and decrease blood volume.
The sensitivity to the effect of other hormones in your body is decreased.
One example of a diuretic is
- The most commonly used diuretics to treat hypertension
- Beta-blockers reduce heart rate and decrease the force of heart contraction
by blocking the action of adrenaline receptors. Beta blockers are widely
prescribed and effective but can cause increased fatigue and decreased exercise
tolerance because they prevent an increased heart rate as a normal response to
- They are also prescribed for people who have associated heart disease,
angina, or history of a heart attack.
- Examples of beta blockers include,
carvedilol (Coreg), metoprolol (Lopressor), atenolol (Tenormin)
Calcium Channel Blockers (CCBs)
- Calcium channel blocking agents work by relaxing the muscle in artery walls
and by therefore reducing the force of contraction of heart muscle.
- Example of calcium channel blockers include,
nifedipine (Procardia), diltiazem (Cardizem), verapamil
(Isoptin, Calan), nicardipine (Cardene), amlodipine (Norvasc),
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors
- ACE inhibitors stop the production in the body of a chemical called
angiotensin II, which causes blood vessels to contract. Narrower blood vessels
are associated with increased blood pressure. Relaxing artery walls leads to
lower blood pressure.
- Examples of ACE inhibitors include Captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), lisinopril (Zestril,
Prinivil), quinapril (Accupril),
and fosinopril (Monopril)
Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
Blockers of Central Sympathetic (autonomic nervous) System
- These agents block messages from the brain's autonomic nervous system that
contract blood vessels. The autonomic nervous system is the part of the
unconscious nervous system of the body that controls heart rate, breathing rate,
and other basic functions.
- These medications relax blood vessels, thus lowering blood pressure.
- An example is clonidine (Catapres)
- Direct vasodilators relax (dilate) the blood vessels to allow blood to flow
under lower pressure.
- These medications are most often used in times of hypertensive crisis and
are injected intravenously to quickly lower blood pressure readings.
- Examples include nitroprusside (Nitropress),
and diazoxide (Hyperstat).
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