Robert Ferry Jr., MD, is a U.S. board-certified Pediatric Endocrinologist. After taking his baccalaureate degree from Yale College, receiving his doctoral degree and residency training in pediatrics at University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA), he completed fellowship training in pediatric endocrinology at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Whenever the glucose (sugar) level
in one's blood rises high temporarily, this condition is known as hyperglycemia.
The opposite condition, low blood sugar, is called hypoglycemia.
Glucose comes from most foods, and the body uses other chemicals to create
glucose in the liver and muscles. The blood carries glucose (blood sugar) to all
the cells in the body. To carry glucose into the cells as an energy supply,
cells need help from insulin. Insulin is a
hormone made by the pancreas, an
organ near the stomach.
The pancreas releases insulin into the blood, based upon
the blood sugar level. Insulin helps move glucose from digested food enter into
cells. Sometimes, the body stops making insulin (for example, in type 1
diabetes), or the insulin does not work properly (as in type 2 diabetes). In diabetic
patients, glucose does not enter the cells sufficiently, thus staying in the
blood and creating high blood sugar levels.
Blood sugar levels can be measured in seconds by using a
blood glucose meter, also known as a glucometer. A tiny drop of blood from the
finger or forearm is
placed on a test strip and inserted into the glucometer. The blood sugar (or
glucose) level is displayed digitally within seconds.
Blood glucose levels vary widely throughout the day and
night in people with diabetes. Ideally, blood glucose levels range from 90 to 130 mg/dL before meals,
and below 180 mg/dL within 1 to 2 hours after a meal. Adolescents and adults
with diabetes strive to keep their blood sugar levels within a controlled range,
usually 80-150 mg/dL before meals. Doctors and diabetes health educators guide
each patient to determine their optimal range of blood glucose control.
When blood sugar levels remain high for several hours,
dehydration and more serious complications can develop. Moreover, even mild
hyperglycemia (a fasting blood sugar over 109 mg/dL in adolescents/adults or
over 100 mg/dL in children before puberty) - when unrecognized or inadequately
treated for several years - can damage multiple tissues in the brain, kidneys, and arteries. When hyperglycemia
is associated with the presence of ketones in the
urine, this state demands
immediate medical attention. When blood sugar levels rise and stay high (over
165 mg/dL consistently) for days to weeks, diabetes should be suspected and must
High blood sugar level fluctations occur daily in people with diabetes. It is important
to control blood sugar levels through
diet, exercise, and medication (if
prescribed), to know the symptoms of elevated blood sugar, and to seek
treatment, when necessary.