High Blood Sugar (Hyperglycemia) Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the High Blood Sugar (Hyperglycemia) article.

Adult-onset diabetes: Type 2 diabetes. See also Diabetes, type 2.

Amputation: Removal of part or all of a body part that is enclosed by skin. Amputation can...

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Autoimmune: Pertaining to autoimmunity, a misdirected immune response that occurs when the...

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Autoimmune disease: An illness that occurs when the body tissues are attacked by its own i...

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Blindness: Loss of useful sight. Blindness can be temporary or permanent. Damage to any p...

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Blood glucose: The main sugar that the body makes from the food in the diet. Glucose is ca...

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Blood sugar: Blood glucose. See also: High blood sugar; Low blood sugar.

Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Breathing: The process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through ...

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Carbohydrates: Mainly sugars and starches, together constituting one of the three principa...

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Coma: A state of deep, unarousable unconsciousness. A coma may occur as a result of head t...

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Dehydration: Excessive loss of body water. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that ca...

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Diabetes: Refers to diabetes mellitus or, less often, to diabetes insipidus. Diabetes mell...

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Diabetes mellitus: Better known just as "diabetes" -- a chronic disease associated with ab...

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Diabetic coma: Deep unconsciousness that results from uncontrolled diabetes associated wit...

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Diabetic ketoacidosis: High blood glucose with the presence of ketones in the urine and bl...

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Dizziness: Painless head discomfort with many possible causes including disturbances of ...

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Dry mouth: The condition of not having enough saliva to keep the mouth wet. This is due to...

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Fasting: : going without food or drink. Patients may be advised to fast for a certain peri...

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Fatigue: A condition characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency ...

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Fats: Plural of the word "fat". See the definition of fat.

Feedback: Many biologic processes are controlled by feedback, just as the temperature in a...

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Forearm: The portion of the upper limb from the elbow to the wrist. The forearm has two bo...

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Glucose: The simple sugar that is the chief source of energy. Glucose is found in the bloo...

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Headache: A pain in the head with the pain being above the eyes or the ears, behind the he...

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Hemoglobin: The oxygen-carrying pigment and predominant protein in the red blood cells. He...

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Hemoglobin A1c: A minor component of hemoglobin to which glucose is bound. Abbreviated HbA...

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High blood sugar: An elevated level of the sugar glucose in the blood. Also called hypergl...

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Hormone: A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activit...

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Hyperglycemia: A high blood sugar. An elevated level specifically of the sugar glucose in...

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Hyperosmolar: In biochemistry, pertaining to an osmolar concentration of the body fluids t...

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Hypoglycemia: Low blood sugar (glucose). Hypoglycemia may be associated with symptoms such...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Insulin: A natural hormone made by the pancreas that controls the level of the sugar gluco...

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Insulin resistance: The diminished ability of cells to respond to the action of insulin in...

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Insulin-dependent diabetes: See Diabetes, type 1.

Juvenile: Between infantile and adult. Used in medicine to indicate onset in childhood, as...

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Juvenile diabetes: See Diabetes, type 1.

Juvenile-onset diabetes: See Diabetes, type 1.

Ketoacidosis: A feature of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus characterized by a combination o...

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Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Low blood sugar: A low blood level of the sugar glucose. Also called hypoglycemia.

Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

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Nausea: Stomach queasiness, the urge to vomit. Nausea can be brought on by many causes, in...

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Nephropathy: Any kidney disease.

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Neuropathy: Any disease or malfunction of the nerves.

NIH: National Institutes of Health.

Normal range: Characteristic of 95 percent of values from a normal population. The remaini...

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Nurse: 1) A person trained, licensed, or skilled in nursing. 2) To feed an infant at the ...

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Organ: A relatively independent part of the body that carries out one or more special func...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Pancreas: A spongy, tube-shaped organ that is about 6 inches long and is located in the ba...

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Polydipsia: Constant, excessive drinking as a result of thirst. Polydipsia occurs in untre...

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Polyuria: The excessive passage of urine (at least 2.5 liters per day for an adult) result...

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Puberty: Adolescence, the period in which the human body first becomes capable of reproduc...

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Resistance: Opposition to something, or the ability to withstand something. For example, s...

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Retina: The retina is the nerve layer that lines the back of the eye, senses light, and c...

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Retinopathy: Any disease of the retina, the light-sensitive membrane at the back of the ey...

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Shortness of breath: Difficulty in breathing. Medically referred to as dyspnea. Shortness ...

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Stomach: The digestive organ that is located in the upper abdomen, under the ribs. The upp...

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Stress: In a medical or biological context stress is a physical, mental, or emotional fact...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Symptom: Any subjective evidence of disease. In contrast, a sign is objective. Blood comin...

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Syndrome: A combination of symptoms and signs that together represent a disease process.

Type 1 diabetes: See Diabetes, type 1.

Type 2 diabetes: See Diabetes, type 2.

Ulcer: A lesion that is eroding away the skin or mucous membrane. Ulcers can have various ...

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Urine: Liquid waste produced by the kidneys. Urine is a clear, transparent fluid that norm...

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Weight loss: Weight loss is a decrease in body weight resulting from either voluntary (die...

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