Hormone Replacement and Osteoporosis Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Hormone Replacement and Osteoporosis article.

Abdomen: The belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the...

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Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Abdominal pain: Pain in the belly. Abdominal pain can be acute or chronic. It may reflect ...

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Acne: Localized skin inflammation as a result of overactivity of the oil glands at the ba...

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Bilateral: Affecting both sides. For example, bilateral arthritis affects joints on both t...

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Bladder: A hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine. The kidneys filter waste f...

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Blood clot: A mass of coagulated blood. A blood clot can block a major blood vessel, causi...

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Blood clots: Blood that has been converted from a liquid to a solid state. Also called a t...

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Bone density: Bone density is the amount of bone tissue in a certain volume of bone. It ca...

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Bone mineral density: BMD, a measure of bone density, reflecting the strength of bones as ...

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Breast cancer: Breast cancer is diagnosed with self- and physician-examination of the brea...

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Breast pain: Pain in the breast or mammary gland, known medically as mastalgia. From the G...

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Breathing: The process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through ...

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Broken hip: Fractured bone in the hip, a key health problem among the elderly, usually due...

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Calcium: A mineral found mainly in the hard part of bones, where it is stored. Calcium is ...

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Calf: The belly or fleshy hind part of the back of the leg below the knee. The calf is mad...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Cardiovascular: Relating to the circulatory system, which comprises the heart and blood ve...

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Cardiovascular disease: Disease affecting the heart or blood vessels.

Chemical menopause: Menopause induced by chemotherapy or other chemicals or medications.See the entire definition of Chemical menopause

Chemotherapy: 1. In the original sense, a chemical that binds to and specifically k...

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Chest: The area of the body located between the neck and the abdomen. The chest contains t...

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Chest pain: Pain in the chest that can be a result of many things, including angina, heart...

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Collagen: The principal protein of the skin, tendons, cartilage, bone, and connective tiss...

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Complete hysterectomy: Complete surgical removal of the uterus and cervix.

Depression: An illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and that affects the way...

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Diarrhea: A common condition that involves unusually frequent and liquid bowel movements. ...

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Discharge: 1.The flow of fluid from part of the body, such as from the nose or vag...

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Dizziness: Painless head discomfort with many possible causes including disturbances of ...

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Endometrial cancer: Cancer of the womb (the uterus ). Endometrial cancer occurs most often...

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Endometriosis: The presence of tissue that normally grows inside the uterus (womb) in an ...

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Estrogen: A female steroid hormone that is produced by the ovaries and, in lesser amounts,...

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Estrogens: Female hormones produced by the ovaries. Estrogen deficiency can lead to osteop...

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Fatigue: A condition characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency ...

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Fever: Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 degr...

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Fibroids: Fibroids are common, benign tumors of smooth muscle in the uterus (womb). Uterin...

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Fracture: A break in bone or cartilage. Although usually a result of trauma, a fracture ca...

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Genetics: The scientific study of heredity. Genetics pertains to humans and all other orga...

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Gynecology: The branch of medicine that is particularly concerned with the health of the f...

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Headache: A pain in the head with the pain being above the eyes or the ears, behind the he...

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Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Heart attack: The death of heart muscle due to the loss of blood supply. The loss of bloo...

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Hormone: A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activit...

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Hot flashes: A sudden wave of mild or intense body heat caused by rushes of hormonal chang...

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Hysterectomy: An operation to remove the uterus. Hysterectomies are most commonly performe...

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Indicate: In medicine, to make a treatment or procedure advisable because of a particular ...

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Internal medicine: The medical specialty dedicated to the diagnosis and medical treatment ...

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Leg: In popular usage, the part of the body from the top of the thigh down to the foot, an...

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Lens: The transparent structure inside the eye that focuses light rays onto the retina.

Lifetime risk: The risk of developing a disease during ones lifetime or dying of the disea...

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Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Mammogram: An X-ray of the breast that is taken with a device that compresses and flattens...

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Menopause: The time in a woman's life when menstrual periods permanently stop; it is also...

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Menstrual: Pertaining to menstruation (the menses), as in last menstrual period, menstrua...

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Menstruation: The periodic blood that flows as a discharge from the uterus. Also called me...

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Migraine: Usually, periodic attacks of headaches on one or both sides of the head. These ...

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Nausea: Stomach queasiness, the urge to vomit. Nausea can be brought on by many causes, in...

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Night sweats: Severe hot flashes that occur at night and result in a drenching sweat. Nigh...

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Nursing: 1) Profession concerned with the provision of services essential to the maintena...

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Obstetrics: The art and science of managing pregnancy, labor, and the puerperium (the time...

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Oophorectomy: The removal of one or both ovaries by surgery.

Osteopenia: Mild thinning of the bone mass. Osteopenia represents a low bone mass and is n...

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Osteoporosis: Thinning of the bones, with reduction in bone mass, due to depletion of calc...

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Ovarian: Of or pertaining to the ovary.

Ovarian cancer: A malignant tumor of the ovary, the egg sac in a female. Women who have a ...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Perimenopause: The time in a woman's life when physiological changes occur that begin the...

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Pharmacy: A location where prescription medications are sold. A pharmacy is constantly sup...

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Phosphate: A form of phosphoric acid. Calcium phosphate makes bones and teeth hard.

Postmenopausal: After menopause, the period of time after a woman has experienced 12 conse...

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Prescription: A physician's order for the preparation and administration of a drug or dev...

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Progesterone: A female hormone, the principal hormone that prepares the uterus to receive ...

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Progestin: Any one of a group of steroid hormones that have the effect of progesterone.

Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Public health: The approach to medicine that is concerned with the health of the community...

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Radiation: 1. Rays of energy. Gamma rays and X-rays are two of the types of energy ...

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Resorption: The process of losing substance. For example, when bone is surgically reshaped...

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Rheumatology: A subspecialty of internal medicine that involves the nonsurgical evaluation...

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Shortness of breath: Difficulty in breathing. Medically referred to as dyspnea. Shortness ...

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Skeleton: The skeleton is composed of bones and is the framework of the body.

Spine: 1) The column of bone known as the vertebral column, which surrounds and protects ...

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Stomach: The digestive organ that is located in the upper abdomen, under the ribs. The upp...

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Stroke: The sudden death of brain cells due to lack of oxygen, caused by blockage of blood...

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Surgeon: A physician who treats disease, injury, or deformity via operative or manual meth...

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Surgeon General: In the United States, the chief medical officer of the U.S. Public Health...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Menopause, surgical: Surgical menopause is, not unexpectedly, menopause induced by surger...

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Testosterone: A "male hormone" -- a sex hormone produced by the testes that encourages th...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Topical: Pertaining to a particular surface area. For example, a topical agent is applied ...

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Total hysterectomy: Complete surgical removal of the uterus including the cervix. Also kno...

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Toxicity: The degree to which a substance (a toxin or poison) can harm humans or animals. ...

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Uterine cancer: A malignant tumor of the uterus (womb), which occurs most often in women b...

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Uterine fibroids: Uterine fibroids are benign tumors of the uterus (the womb). They are th...

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Uterine lining: The inner layer of the uterus (womb); the cells that line the womb; anatom...

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Uterus: A hollow, pear-shaped organ that is located in a woman's lower abdomen, between th...

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Women's Health Initiative: A long-term national health study that focuses on strategies fo...

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World Health Organization: The subagency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with...

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Wrist: The part of the hand that is nearest the forearm and consists of the carpal bones a...

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Medical Dictionary