Hyponatremia (Low Sodium) Topic Guide
Hyponatremia (Low Sodium): Low levels of sodium in the blood is referred to as hyponatremia. Causes of hyponatremia include: pneumonia, lung cancer, brain tumors, kidney or heart failure, liver disease, and dehydration. Some of the symptoms of hyponatremia include: headache, nausea and vomiting, confusion, and lethargy. In acute hyponatremia seizures, coma, and even death may occur. Treatment of hyponatremia is generally to balance the electrolytes and raise the sodium levels in the blood.
Acute Kidney Failure Kidney failure, or the ability of the kidneys to filter water and waste is caused by prerenal, postrenal, or renal problems with the kidney(s). Symptoms of kidney failure include: decreased urine production, confusion, fatigue, lethargy, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, problems concentrating, edema, and a metallic taste in the mouth. Treatment for kidney failure depends upon the cause.