Immunizations and Antibiotics for Overseas Travel Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Immunizations and Antibiotics for Overseas Travel article.

Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Acetaminophen: A nonaspirin pain reliever or analgesic. Acetaminophen may be given alone t...

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Acute: Of abrupt onset, in reference to a disease. Acute often also connotes an illness th...

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Anemia: The condition of having a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells or quantity ...

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Antihistamines: Drugs that combat the histamine released during an allergic reaction by bl...

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Aspirin: Once the Bayer trademark for acetylsalicylic acid, now the common name for this a...

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Bacteria: Single-celled microorganisms that can exist either as independent (free-living) ...

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Bacterial: Of or pertaining to bacteria, as in a bacterial lung infection.

Bicarbonate: In medicine, bicarbonate usually refers to bicarbonate of soda (sodium bicarb...

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Breastfeeding: Feeding a child human breast milk. According to the American Academy of Ped...

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Capsule: Capsule has many meanings in medicine including the following:

  1. In medici...

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CDC: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US agency charged with tracking a...

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Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c...

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: The US agency charged with tracking and invest...

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Chemoprophylaxis: The use of a chemical agent to prevent the development of a disease. See...

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Chickenpox: A highly infectious viral disease also known medically as varicella -- in many...

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Chloride: The major anion (negatively charged substance) in the blood and extracellular fl...

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Colostomy: An artificial exit from the colon created to divert waste through a hole in the...

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COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Any disorder that persistently obstructs bron...

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Decompression: 1. In general, the removal of pressure.
2. In surgery, ...

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Deep vein thrombosis: A blood clot within a deep vein, typically in the thigh or leg. The ...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Diarrhea: A common condition that involves unusually frequent and liquid bowel movements. ...

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Diphtheria: An acute infectious upper respiratory tract disease that affects the throat. I...

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Doxycycline: Brand name: Vibramycin. A synthetic broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from te...

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Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain, which may be caused by a bacterium, a virus, or a...

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Endemic: Present in a community at all times but in relatively low frequency. Something t...

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Exacerbate: To make worse. For example, smoking may exacerbate lung disease.

Fever: Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 degr...

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Glucose: The simple sugar that is the chief source of energy. Glucose is found in the bloo...

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Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Heart attack: The death of heart muscle due to the loss of blood supply. The loss of bloo...

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Heart failure: Inability of the heart to keep up with the demands on it and, specifically...

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Hemoglobin: The oxygen-carrying pigment and predominant protein in the red blood cells. He...

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Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, irrespective of the cause. Hepatitis is caused by a ...

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Hepatitis A: Inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is usua...

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Hepatitis B: Inflammation of the liver due to the hepatitis B virus (HBV), once thought t...

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Human papillomavirus: HPV. A family of over 100 viruses including those which cause warts ...

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Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to treat pa...

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Ileostomy: An opening into the ileum, part of the small intestine, from the outside of the...

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Immune: Protected against infection, usually by the presence of antibodies.

Immune system: A complex system that is responsible for distinguishing a person from every...

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Immunity: The condition of being immune. Immunity can be innate'for example, humans are in...

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Immunization: Vaccination. Immunizations work by stimulating the immune system, the natur...

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Immunoglobulin: A protein produced by plasma cells and lymphocytes and characteristic of t...

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Incidence: The frequency with which something, such as a disease or trait, appears in a pa...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Influenza: The flu is caused by viruses that infect the respiratory tract which are divide...

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Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Lactobacillus: A bacterium normally found in the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina. Lact...

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Liter: A metric measure of capacity that is equal to the volume of 1 kilogram of water at ...

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Malaria: An infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites from the Plasmodium family th...

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Measles: An acute and highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever, runny nose,...

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Medical school: A school with a curriculum leading to a medical degree. The mission of eve...

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Meningococcus: A type of bacteria now formally known as Neisseria meningitidis, which is r...

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Mumps: An acute (sudden, shortlived) viral illness that usually presents with inflammation...

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Ophthalmologist: A physician who practices ophthalmology.

Oral rehydration therapy: The administration of special fluids by mouth treat dehydration...

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Oxygen: The odorless gas that is present in the air and necessary to maintain life. Oxygen...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Passive immunity: Immunity produced by the transfer to one person of antibodies that were ...

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Pediatric: Pertaining to children.

Pertussis: Whooping cough, a communicable, potentially deadly illness characterized by fi...

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Pharmacist: A professional who fills prescriptions and, in the case of a compounding pharm...

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Pharmacy: A location where prescription medications are sold. A pharmacy is constantly sup...

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Phosphate: A form of phosphoric acid. Calcium phosphate makes bones and teeth hard.

Pneumothorax: Free air in the chest outside the lung. Pneumothorax can occur spontaneously...

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Polio: Abbreviation for poliomyelitis, an acute and sometimes devastating disease caused ...

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Potassium: The major positive ion (cation) found inside cells. The chemical notation for p...

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Pregnancy: The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. Thi...

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Pregnant: The state of carrying a developing fetus within the body.

Prescription: A physician's order for the preparation and administration of a drug or dev...

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Probiotics: live microorganisms (usually bacteria) that are similar to beneficial microor...

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Prophylactic: A preventive measure. The word comes from the Greek for "an advance guard," ...

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Prophylaxis: The prevention of disease.

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Psoriasis: A reddish, scaly rash often located over the surfaces of the elbows, knees, sca...

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Rabies: A potentially fatal viral infection that attacks the central nervous system. Rabie...

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Rehydration: The process of restoring lost water (dehydration) to the body tissues and flu...

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Renal: Having to do with the kidney. For example, renal cancer is cancer of the kidneys.

Resistance: Opposition to something, or the ability to withstand something. For example, s...

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Respiratory: Having to do with respiration.

Sensitivity: 1. In psychology, the quality of being sensitive. As, for example, sen...

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Sickle cell disease: A genetic blood disorder caused by the presence of an abnormal form ...

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Sodium: The major positive ion (cation) in the fluid surrounding cells in the body. The ch...

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Stomach: The digestive organ that is located in the upper abdomen, under the ribs. The upp...

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Substance: 1. Material with particular features.
2. The material that...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Tetanus: An often fatal infectious disease that is caused by the bacterium Clostridium tet...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Thermometer: A device used to measure the temperature of gaseous, liquid or solid matter ...

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Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot in a blood vessel. The vessel may be...

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Tongue: A strong muscle that is anchored to the floor of the mouth. The tongue is covered ...

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Topical: Pertaining to a particular surface area. For example, a topical agent is applied ...

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Toxin: A poison produced by certain animals, plants, or bacteria.

Travel medicine: A branch of medicine that specializes in diseases and conditions that are...

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Traveler's diarrhea: Diarrhea that results from infections acquired while traveling to ano...

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Tuberculosis: A highly contagious infection caused by the bacterium called Mycobacterium ...

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Typhoid: See: Typhoid fever.

Vaccination: Injection of a killed microbe in order to stimulate the immune system against...

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Vaccines: Microbial preparations of killed or modified microorganisms that can stimulate a...

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Vein: A blood vessel that carries blood that is low in oxygen content from the body back t...

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Viral: Of or pertaining to a virus. For example, if a person has a viral rash, the rash wa...

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Virus: A microorganism that is smaller than a bacterium that cannot grow or reproduce apar...

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Vital: Necessary to maintain life. For example, breathing is a vital function.

World Health Organization: The subagency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with...

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Yellow fever: An acute systemic (bodywide) illness caused by a virus called a Flavivirus. ...

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Yellow fever vaccination: A live attenuated (weakened) viral vaccine for yellow fever. Yel...

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Medical Dictionary