Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Infertility is the inability of a couple to become pregnant (regardless of cause) after 1 year of unprotected sexual intercourse (using no birth control methods).
Infertility affects about 6.1 million people in the United States, about 10% of men and women of reproductive age.
Infertility affects men and women equally.
Most infertility cases are treated with medication or surgery. Improvements in fertility treatment have made it possible for many women whose male partner is infertile to
become pregnant. These new and advanced technologies include
in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and other similar procedures.
The normal reproduction process requires interaction between the female and male reproductive tracts. The woman ovulates and releases an egg from her ovaries to travel through the
Fallopian tube to her uterus (womb). The male produces sperm. Both egg and sperm normally meet in the woman's
Fallopian tube, where fertilization occurs. The embryo then implants in the uterus for further development.
Infertility occurs when something in this pattern does not happen. The problem could be with the woman
(female infertility), with the man (male infertility), or with both. Unknown factors cause infertility 10% of the time. For infertility with an unknown cause, all findings from standard tests may be normal. The actual cause of infertility may not be detected because the problem may be with the egg or sperm itself or with the embryo and its inability to implant.
If a woman does not recall ever having pelvic inflammatory disease, her doctor may be able to see scarring or blockage of the tubes during a surgical procedure called laparoscopy. Tiny cameras and instruments are inserted through small cuts in
the abdomen to allow the doctor to view the reproductive organs.
Endometriosis affects women during their reproductive years
and my contribute to infertility. It can cause pelvic pain and infertility. A
woman may be at risk for developing it if she has a family history of the disease. With endometriosis, uterine lining tissue grows outside the uterus and may damage the ovaries and
Fallopian tubes. A woman may not know she has a mild form of this condition. Sometimes
the doctor finds it during laparoscopy.
Environmental and occupational factors
Certain environmental factors may cause men to produce a less concentrated sperm, according to a government report. Exposure to lead, other heavy metals, and pesticides has also been associated with male infertility. Many other factors, such as excessive heat exposure, microwave radiation, ultrasound, and other health hazards, are more controversial as to whether they induce infertility. Toxic effects related to tobacco, marijuana, and other drugs
Smoking may cause infertility in both men and women. In experimental animals, nicotine has been shown to block the production of sperm and decrease the size of a man's testicles. In
women, tobacco changes the cervical mucus, thus affecting the way sperm reach the egg.
Marijuana may disrupt a woman's ovulation cycle (release of the egg). Marijuana use affects men by decreasing the sperm count and the quality of the sperm.
Heroin, cocaine, and crack cocaine use induces similar effects but places the user at increased risk for
pelvic inflammatory disease and HIV infection
associated with risky sexual behavior.
In women, the effects of alcohol are related more to severe consequences for the fetus. Nevertheless,
chronic alcoholism is related to disorders in ovulation and, therefore, interferes with fertility. Alcohol use by men interferes with the synthesis of testosterone and has an impact on sperm concentration. Alcoholism may delay a man's sexual response and may cause
impotence (unable to have an erection).
Exercise should be encouraged as part of normal activities. However, too much exercise is dangerous, especially for
long-distance runners. For women, it may result in disruption of the ovulation cycle, cause no menstrual periods, or result in miscarriages (loss of pregnancy). In men, overexercise may cause a low sperm count.
Inadequate diet associated with extreme weight loss or gain
Obesity is becoming a major health issue in the United States. Obesity has an impact on infertility only when a woman's weight reaches extremes.
A woman becomes less fertile as she ages into her fifth decade of life (age 40-49 years). Among men, as they age,
levels of testosterone fall, and the volume and concentration of sperm change.
Healthy couples younger than 30 years who have regular sexual intercourse and use no birth control methods have a 25%
to 30% chance of achieving pregnancy each month. A woman's peak fertility is early in the third decade of life. As a woman ages beyond 35 years (and particularly after age 40 years), the likelihood of becoming pregnant is less than 10% per month.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD Medical Editor:
Roxanne Dryden-Edwards, MD
Women undergoing infertility treatment are all too familiar with the need to
administer injections, whether subcutaneous (beneath the skin) or intramuscular.
Although the commonly used fertility drug clomiphene (Clomid) is taken in pill
form, a great many of the drugs required for women being treated for infertility
necessitate getting a shot- typically, many shots â€“ over a period of days to
weeks. Depending upon her precise diagnosis and medical history, a woman may
take one or several of these injectable fertility treatments.
The injectable drugs for infertility are hormonal treatments, all designed to
regulate and stimulate the production of hormones or to trigger ovulation. There
are subtle differences in the drugs and their mechanisms of action, although
they are all used to promote fertility in some way.
Commonly used injectable drugs for infertility treatments include:
hMG, or human menopausal gonadotropin (Pergonal,
Repronex, and Metrodin): This drug is made up of two human hormones,
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Gonadotropins
are commonly administered to women undergoing assisted reproduction technology
treatments with the goal of stimulating the ovaries to produce multiple
follicles (eggs) during one cycle. FSH and LH are the hormones that normally
regulate the ovarian cycle and stimulate egg development and ovulation, and
injections of this drug typically are given daily for 7 to 12 days in the first
half of the menstrual cycle.