Insulin Resistance Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Insulin Resistance article.

Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Absorption: Uptake. For example, intestinal absorption is the uptake of food (or other sub...

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Acanthosis nigricans: A skin condition characterized by dark, thickened, velvety patches, ...

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Aerobic: Oxygen-requiring. Aerobic bacteria need oxygen to grow. Aerobic exercise requires...

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Aerobic exercise: Brisk exercise that promotes the circulation of oxygen through the blood...

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Angina: Chest pain due to an inadequate supply of oxygen to the heart muscle. The pain is ...

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Arteriosclerosis: Hardening and thickening of the walls of the arteries. Arteriosclerosis ...

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Artery: A vessel that carries blood high in oxygen content away from the heart to the far...

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Atherosclerosis: A process of progressive thickening and hardening of the walls of medium-...

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Axilla: Armpit.

Baseline: Information or data gathered at the beginning of a period from which variations ...

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Blood glucose: The main sugar that the body makes from the food in the diet. Glucose is ca...

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Blood pressure: The blood pressure is the pressure of the blood within the arteries. It is...

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BMI: Body mass index.

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Body mass index: A key index for relating weight to height. Abbreviated BMI. BMI is a pers...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Carbohydrate: One of the three nutrient compounds, along with fat and protein, used as ene...

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Carbohydrates: Mainly sugars and starches, together constituting one of the three principa...

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Cardiovascular: Relating to the circulatory system, which comprises the heart and blood ve...

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Cholesterol: The most common type of steroid in the body. Cholesterol has a reputation for...

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Cirrhosis: Liver disease characterized by irreversible scarring. Alcohol and viral hepatit...

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Conception: 1. The union of the sperm and the ovum. Synonymous with fertilization.
...

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Contrast: Short for "contrast media." Contrast media are X-ray dyes used to provide contra...

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Coronary artery disease: Impedance or blockage of one or more arteries that supply blood t...

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Diabetes: Usually refers to diabetes mellitus or, less often, to diabetes insipidus. Diabe...

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Diabetes mellitus: More commonly referred to as "diabetes" -- a chronic disease associated...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Fasting: : going without food or drink. Patients may be advised to fast for a certain peri...

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Fats: Plural of the word "fat". See the definition of fat.

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FDA: Food and Drug Administration.

Food and Drug Administration: An agency within the US Public Health Service that provides ...

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Gastrointestinal: Adjective referring collectively to the stomach and small and large inte...

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Genetic: Having to do with genes and genetic
information.

Genetics: The scientific study of heredity. Genetics pertains to humans and all other orga...

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Gestational diabetes: A diabetic condition that appears during pregnancy and usually goes ...

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Glucose: The simple sugar that is the chief source of energy. Glucose is found in the bloo...

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Glucose tolerance test: A test of carbohydrate metabolism that is used primarily in the di...

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Glycemic index: An indicator of the ability of different types of foods that contain carbo...

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Growth in height: See: Normal growth.

HDL: High density lipoprotein.

HDL cholesterol: High density lipoprotein cholesterol. Lipoproteins, which are combination...

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Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Heart attack: The death of heart muscle due to the loss of blood supply. The loss of bloo...

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High blood pressure: A repeatedly elevated blood pressure exceeding 140 over 90 mmHg. Chro...

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Hormone: A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activit...

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Incidence: The frequency with which something, such as a disease or trait, appears in a pa...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Infertility: Diminished or absent ability to conceive and bear offspring. A couple is cons...

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Insulin: A natural hormone made by the pancreas that controls the level of the sugar gluco...

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Insulin resistance: The diminished ability of cells to respond to the action of insulin in...

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Intervention: The act of intervening, interfering or interceding with the intent of modify...

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Laboratory: A place for doing tests and research procedures, and for preparing chemicals a...

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Lipids: Another word for "fats." (Please see the various meanings of Fat.) Lipids can be m...

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Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Metabolic: Relating to metabolism, the whole range of biochemical processes that occur wit...

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Metabolic syndrome: A constellation of conditions that place people at high risk for coron...

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Metabolism: The whole range of biochemical processes that occur within a living organism. ...

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Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Obesity: The state of being well above one's normal weight.

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Onset: In medicine, the first appearance of the signs or symptoms of an illness as, for ex...

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Oral glucose tolerance test: A test to determine the body's ability to handle glucose ...

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Ovarian: Of or pertaining to the ovary.

Ovary: The female gonad, one of a pair of reproductive glands in women. The ovaries are lo...

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Overweight: The term "overweight" is used in two different ways. In one sense it is a way ...

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Ovulation: The release of the ripe egg (ovum) from the ovary. The egg is released when the...

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Pancreas: A spongy, tube-shaped organ that is about 6 inches long and is located in the ba...

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PCOS: Polycystic ovary syndrome.

Peripheral: Situated away from the center, as opposed to centrally located.

Peripheral vascular disease: A disease of blood vessels outside the heart. Peripheral vasc...

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Physiologic: Something that is normal, that is due neither to anything pathologic nor sign...

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Polycystic ovarian syndrome: Abbreviated PCOS. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a condition ...

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Polycystic ovary syndrome: Abbreviated PCOS. Polcystic ovary syndrome is a condition in wo...

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Pregnancy: The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. Thi...

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Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan...

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Progressive: Increasing in scope or severity, advancing, or going forward. For example, a ...

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Proteins: Large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific orde...

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Resistance: Opposition to something, or the ability to withstand something. For example, s...

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Sensitivity: 1. In psychology, the quality of being sensitive. As, for example, sen...

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Steroid: One of a large group of chemical substances classified by a specific carbon struc...

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Stress: In a medical or biological context stress is a physical, mental, or emotional fact...

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Stroke: The sudden death of brain cells due to lack of oxygen, caused by blockage of blood...

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Syndrome: A combination of symptoms and signs that together represent a disease process.

Testosterone: A "male hormone" -- a sex hormone produced by the testes that encourages th...

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Toxicity: The degree to which a substance (a toxin or poison) can harm humans or animals. ...

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Triglycerides: The major form of fat stored by the body. A triglyceride consists of three ...

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Type 2 diabetes: See Diabetes, type 2.

Vascular: Relating to blood vessels. For example, the vascular system in the body includes...

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Weight loss: Weight loss is a decrease in body weight resulting from either voluntary (die...

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