Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis) Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis) article.

Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Abdominal pain: Pain in the belly. Abdominal pain can be acute or chronic. It may reflect ...

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Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Acetaminophen: A nonaspirin pain reliever or analgesic. Acetaminophen may be given alone t...

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Acupuncture: The practice of inserting needles into the body to reduce pain or induce anes...

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Adjacent: Lying nearby. Related terms include superjacent, subjacent, and circumjacent. Fr...

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Analgesic: A drug that relieves pain.

Anemia: The condition of having a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells or quantity ...

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Anterior: The front, as opposed to the posterior. The anterior surface of the heart is tow...

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Antibody: An immunoglobulin, a specialized immune protein, produced because of the introdu...

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Antinuclear antibody: An unusual antibody that is directed against structures within the n...

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Arthritis: Inflammation of a joint. When joints are inflamed they can develop stiffness, w...

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Arthrocentesis: A procedure in which a sterile needle and syringe are used to drain fluid ...

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Aspiration: Removal by suction of fluid and cells through a needle. Aspiration also refer...

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Aspirin: Once the Bayer trademark for acetylsalicylic acid, now the common name for this a...

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Autoimmune: Pertaining to autoimmunity, a misdirected immune response that occurs when the...

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Autoimmune disease: An illness that occurs when the body tissues are attacked by its own i...

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Bacteria: Single-celled microorganisms that can exist either as independent (free-living) ...

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Biofeedback: A method of treatment that uses a monitor to measure patients' physiologic in...

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Biopsy: The removal of a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope to check for ...

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Blood clot: A mass of coagulated blood. A blood clot can block a major blood vessel, causi...

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Bone density: Bone density is the amount of bone tissue in a certain volume of bone. It ca...

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Bone scan: A nuclear medicine technique for creating images of bones on a computer screen ...

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Bowel: The small and large intestine.

Breathing: The process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through ...

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Bridge: A set of one or more false teeth supported by a metal framework, used to replace ...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Capsule: Capsule has many meanings in medicine including the following:

  1. In medici...

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Cardiologist: A physician who specializes in treating heart disorders.

Cartilage: Firm, rubbery tissue that cushions bones at joints. A flexible kind of cartilag...

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CBC: A commonly used abbreviation in medicine that stands for complete blood count, a set...

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Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Circulation: In medicine, the movement of fluid through the body in a regular or circuitou...

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Clinical trials: Trials to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of medications or medical...

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Collarbone: A horizontal bone above the first rib that makes up the front part of the shou...

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Complementary medicine: A group of diagnostic and therapeutic disciplines that are used to...

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Complication: In medicine, an unanticipated problem that arises following, and is a result...

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Cough: A rapid expulsion of air from the lungs, typically in order to clear the lung airwa...

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Cox-2: Cyclooxygenase-2, an enzyme that acts to speed up the production of certain chemica...

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Cox-2 inhibitor: An antiinflammatory drug that selectively blocks the cox-2 enzyme. Blocki...

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CT scan: Computed tomography scan. Detailed images of internal organs are obtained by this...

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Depression: An illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and that affects the way...

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Dermatologist: A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of skin problems...

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DEXA: Dual energy X-ray absorptometry. See: DXA.

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Diarrhea: A common condition that involves unusually frequent and liquid bowel movements. ...

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Elbow: The juncture of the long bones in the middle portion of the upper extremity. The bo...

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Enzyme: Proteins that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction in a living organism. An e...

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Erosion: An erosion is an eating away of a surface. ("Erodere" in Latin means to eat out.)...

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Erythrocyte: A cell that contains hemoglobin and can carry oxygen to the body. Also called...

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Essential: In medicine, of unknown cause, as in essential hypertension (high blood pressur...

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Extremity: An uttermost part of the body, such as a hand or a foot.

Father: (1) The male parent. (2) One who originates. For example, "Wilhelm Roentgen is con...

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FDA: Food and Drug Administration.

Fever: Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 F (37...

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Flare: 1. an exacerbation of a chronic disease. Sometimes referred to as a flare-up, a fla...

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Flu: Flu is a colloquialism for influenza. The flu is an acute respiratory illness caused ...

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Fracture: A break in bone or cartilage. Although usually a result of trauma, a fracture ca...

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Gastroenterologist: A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases...

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Glucocorticoid: A hormone that predominantly affects the metabolism of carbohydrates and, ...

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Groin: The area where the thigh meets the hip.

Guided imagery: An alternative medicine technique in which patients use their imagination ...

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Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Hemoglobin: The oxygen-carrying pigment and predominant protein in the red blood cells. He...

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Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to treat pa...

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Idiopathic: Of unknown cause. Any disease that is of uncertain or unknown origin may be te...

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Imagery: Both a mental process (as in imagining) and a wide variety of procedures used in...

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Immune: Protected against infection, usually by the presence of antibodies.

Immune response: Any reaction by the immune system. For example, poison ivy can cause an i...

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Immune system: A complex system that is responsible for distinguishing a person from every...

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Immunology: The study of all aspects of the immune system, including its structure and fun...

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Immunosuppressive: 1. Pertaining to immunosuppression, the suppression of the immun...

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Indicate: In medicine, to make a treatment or procedure advisable because of a particular ...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Inflammation: A localized reaction that produces redness, warmth, swelling, and pain as a ...

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Inflammatory bowel disease: A group of chronic intestinal diseases characterized by infla...

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Injury: Harm or hurt. To harm, hurt, or wound. The word injure may be in physical or emot...

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Interleukin-1: A protein produced by various cells, including macrophages, interleukin-1 ...

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Internal medicine: The medical specialty dedicated to the diagnosis and medical treatment ...

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Intestine: The long, tubelike organ in the abdomen that completes the process of digestion...

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Iris: The circular, colored curtain of the eye. The opening of the iris forms the pupil. T...

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Iritis: Inflammation of the interior eye structures.

Jaw: The movable junction of the bones below the mouth (the mandible) and the bone just ab...

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Joint: The area where two bones are attached for the purpose of permitting body parts to m...

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Juvenile: Between infantile and adult. Used in medicine to indicate onset in childhood, as...

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Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: See: Arthritis, systemic-onset juvenile rheumatoid.

Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Knee: The knee is a joint which has three parts. The thigh bone (the femur) meets the lar...

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Lab test: A test that is done in the laboratory where the appropriate equipment, supplies,...

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Leg: In popular usage, the part of the body from the top of the thigh down to the foot, an...

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Lens: The transparent structure inside the eye that focuses light rays onto the retina.

Limb: An arm or a leg.

Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Lupus: A chronic inflammatory disease that is caused by autoimmunity. Patients with lupus ...

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Lyme disease: An inflammatory disease that is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi...

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Lymph: The almost colorless fluid that travels through the lymphatic system, carrying cell...

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Lymph node: One of many small, bean-shaped organs located throughout the lymphatic system....

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Magnesium: A mineral involved in many processes in the body including nerve signaling, the...

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Marker: A piece of DNA that lies on a chromosome so close to a gene that the marker and t...

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Medical history: 1. In clinical medicine, the patient's past and present which may ...

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Medical school: A school with a curriculum leading to a medical degree. The mission of eve...

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Meditation: A typically self-directed practice for relaxing the body and calming the mind....

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Microscope: An optical instrument that augments the power of the eye to see small objects....

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Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

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MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging.

Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Myalgia: Pain in the muscles or within muscle 'tissue.

Naprelan: See: Naproxen.

Nausea: Stomach queasiness, the urge to vomit. Nausea can be brought on by many causes, in...

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Neck: The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constric...

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Necrosis: The death of living cells or tissues. Necrosis can be due, for example, to ische...

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Nephrologist: A physician specializing in treating diseases of the kidneys.

NIAMS: Stands for National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, o...

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Node: Literally a knot, a node is a collection of tissue. For example a lymph node, is a ...

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NSAID: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, a medication that is commonly prescribed or pu...

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Nutrition: 1: The process of taking in food and using it for growth, metabolism, and repai...

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Occupational therapist: A licensed health professional who is trained to evaluate patients...

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Ophthalmologist: A physician who practices ophthalmology.

Organ: A relatively independent part of the body that carries out one or more special func...

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Osteopenia: Mild thinning of the bone mass. Osteopenia represents a low bone mass and is n...

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Osteoporosis: Thinning of the bones, with reduction in bone mass, due to depletion of calc...

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Oxygen: The odorless gas that is present in the air and necessary to maintain life. Oxygen...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Pediatric: Pertaining to children.

Pediatric rheumatologist: A physician who specializes in providing comprehensive care to ...

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Pediatrics: The field of medicine that is concerned with the health of infants, children, ...

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Pericardial: Referring to the pericardium, the sac of fibrous tissue that surrounds the he...

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Pericarditis: Inflammation of the lining around the heart (the pericardium) that causes ch...

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Pharmacy: A location where prescription medications are sold. A pharmacy is constantly sup...

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Physical therapy: A branch of rehabilitative health that uses specially designed exercises...

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Platelet: An irregular, disc-shaped element in the blood that assists in blood clotting....

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Platelet count: The calculated number of platelets in a volume of blood, usually expressed...

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Pleural: Pertaining to the pleura, the thin covering that protects the lungs. The term "pl...

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Polyarticular: Involving many joints, as opposed to monoarticular (affecting just one join...

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Primary care: A patient's main source for regular medical care, ideally providing continui...

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Probe: 1: In surgery, a probe is a slender flexible rod with a blunt end used to explore, ...

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Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan...

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Progressive: Increasing in scope or severity, advancing, or going forward. For example, a ...

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Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Proteins: Large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific orde...

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Psoriasis: A reddish, scaly rash often located over the surfaces of the elbows, knees, sca...

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Psoriatic arthritis: Joint inflammation that is associated with psoriasis. Psoriatic arthr...

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Quality of life: The patient's ability to enjoy normal life activities. Quality of life is...

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Range of motion: The full movement potential of a joint, usually its range of flexion and ...

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Rash: Breaking out (eruption) of the skin. A rash can be caused by an underlying medical c...

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Recurrent: Appearing or occurring again. For example, a recurrent fever is a fever that ha...

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Rejection: In transplantation biology, when the body's immune system attacks transplanted ...

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Remission: Disappearance of the signs and symptoms of cancer or other disease. A remission...

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Residual: Something left behind. With residual disease, the disease has not been eradicate...

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Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of joint...

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Rheumatoid factor: An antibody that is measurable in the blood and is used to diagnose rhe...

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Rheumatologist: A specialist in the non-surgical treatment of rheumatic illnesses, especia...

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Rheumatology: A subspecialty of internal medicine that involves the nonsurgical evaluation...

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Risk factor: Something that increases a person's chances of developing a disease. For exam...

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Rule out: Term used in medicine, meaning to eliminate or exclude something from considera...

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Scan: As a noun, the data or image obtained from the examination of organs or regions of...

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Scleroderma: A disease of connective tissue that causes scar tissue (fibrosis) to form in ...

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Sedimentation rate: A blood test that detects and monitors inflammation in the body. Abbre...

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Sensitivity: 1. In psychology, the quality of being sensitive. As, for example, sen...

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Shortness of breath: Difficulty in breathing. Medically referred to as dyspnea. Shortness ...

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Shoulder: A structure made up of two main bones: the scapula (shoulder blade) and the hume...

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Skeletal: Pertaining to the skeleton, the bones of the body that collectively provide the ...

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Sore: 1. (adjective) A popular term for painful, such as a sore throat. 2. (...

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Sore throat: Pain in the throat. Sore throat may be caused by many different causes, inclu...

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Spine: 1) The column of bone known as the vertebral column, which surrounds and protects ...

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Spleen: An organ that is located in the upper-left part of the abdomen, not far from the s...

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Sprain: An injury to a ligament that results from overuse or trauma. The treatment of a sp...

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Still's disease: See: Arthritis, systemic-onset juvenile rheumatoid.

Stomach: The digestive organ that is located in the upper abdomen, under the ribs. The upp...

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Stress: In a medical or biological context stress is a physical, mental, or emotional fact...

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Subcutaneous: Under the skin. For example, a subcutaneous injection is an injection in whi...

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Subluxation: Partial dislocation of a joint. A complete dislocation is a luxation.

Surgeon: A physician who treats disease, injury, or deformity via operative or manual meth...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Symptom: Any subjective evidence of disease. In contrast, a sign is objective. Blood comin...

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Synovectomy: Surgical removal of the joint lining. A synovectomy may be done to remove the...

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Synovial fluid: The slippery fluid that lubricates joints. Also known as synovia.

Systemic: Affecting the entire body. A systemic disease such as diabetes can affect the wh...

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Systemic lupus erythematosus: A chronic inflammatory condition caused by an autoimmune di...

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T cell: A type of white blood cell that is of key importance to the immune system and is a...

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Tension: 1) The pressure within a vessel, such as blood pressure: the pressure within t...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Throat: The throat is the anterior (front) portion of the neck beginning at the back of th...

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Toxicity: The degree to which a substance (a toxin or poison) can harm humans or animals. ...

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Transplant: The grafting of a tissue from one place to another, just as in botany a bu...

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Tuberculosis: A highly contagious infection caused by the bacterium called Mycobacteriu...

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Tumor: An abnormal mass of tissue. Tumors are a classic sign of inflammation, and can be ...

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Tumor necrosis factor: One of multiple proteins capable of inducing necrosis (death) of tu...

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Tylenol: See: Acetaminophen.

Ultrasound: High-frequency sound waves. Ultra-sound waves can be bounced off tissues by us...

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Uvea: An inner layer of the eye that includes the iris, the blood vessels that serve the e...

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Uveitis: Inflammation of the uvea. Uveitis is a serious form of eye inflammation and requi...

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Vein: A blood vessel that carries blood that is low in oxygen content from the body back t...

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Viruses: Small living particles that can infect cells and change how the cells function. I...

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Vitamin D: A steroid vitamin which promotes the intestinal absorption and metabolism of ca...

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Vitamins: The word "vitamin" was coined in 1911 by the Warsaw-born biochemist Casimir Funk...

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Weight loss: Weight loss is a decrease in body weight resulting from either voluntary (die...

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White blood cell: One of the cells the body makes to help fight infections. There are seve...

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White blood cell count (leukocyte count): The number of white blood cells (WBCs) in the b...

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Wrist: The part of the hand that is nearest the forearm and consists of the carpal bones a...

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X-ray: High-energy radiation with waves shorter than those of visible light. X-ray is used...

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