Kidney Stones Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Kidney Stones article.

Abdomen: The belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the...

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Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Abdominal aortic aneurysm: A balloon-like swelling in the wall of the aorta within the abd...

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Abdominal pain: Pain in the belly. Abdominal pain can be acute or chronic. It may reflect ...

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Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Abscess: A local accumulation of pus anywhere in the body. The following are some example...

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Acidosis: Too much acid in the body, a distinctly abnormal condition resulting from the ac...

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Acute: Of abrupt onset, in reference to a disease. Acute often also connotes an illness th...

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Amino acid: One of the20 building blocks from which proteins are assembled. Isoleucine, le...

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Analysis: In psychology, a term for conversation-based therapeutic processes used to gain ...

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Anatomy: The study of human or animal form, by observation or examination of the living be...

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Aneurysm: A localized widening (dilatation) of an artery, a vein, or the heart. At the poi...

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Anti-emetic: See: Antiemetic.

Aorta: The largest artery in the body, the aorta arises from the left ventricle of the he...

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Aortic: Pertaining to the aorta, the largest artery in the body.

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Aortic aneurysm: An outpouching (a local widening) of the largest artery in the body, the ...

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Appendicitis: Inflammation of the appendix, usually associated with infection of the appen...

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Appendix: A small outpouching from the beginning of the large intestine.

Bladder: A hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine. The kidneys filter waste f...

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Blood in the urine: Blood that appears in the urine. Also known as hematuria. Gross hematu...

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Bowel: The small and large intestine.

Bruit: A sound heard over an artery or vascular channel, reflecting turbulence of flow. Mo...

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Bypass: An operation in which a new pathway is created for the transport of substances in ...

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Calcium: A mineral found mainly in the hard part of bones, where it is stored. Calcium is ...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Colic: A cause of crampy abdominal pain in early infancy. Colic is a common condition, occ...

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Complication: In medicine, an unanticipated problem that arises following, and is a result...

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Computerized tomography: Pictures of structures within the body created by a computer that...

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Contraindication: A condition which makes a particular treatment or procedure potentially ...

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Contrast: Short for "contrast media." Contrast media are X-ray dyes used to provide contra...

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CT scan: Computed tomography scan. Detailed images of internal organs are obtained by this...

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Cystic fibrosis: A common grave genetic disease that affects the exocrine glands and is ch...

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Cystine: An amino acid that is particularly notable because it is the least soluble of al...

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Dehydration: Excessive loss of body water. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that cau...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Dilation: The process of enlargement, stretching, or expansion. The word "dilatation" mean...

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Diverticulitis: Inflammation of the diverticula (small outpouchings) along the wall of th...

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Drain: A device for removing fluid from a cavity or wound. A drain is typically a tube or ...

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Electrolyte: A substance that dissociates into ions in solution and acquires the capacity ...

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Emergency department: The department of a hospital responsible for the provision of medica...

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Fever: Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 F (37...

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Gallbladder: A pear-shaped organ located below the liver that stores the bile secreted by ...

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Gland: A group of cells that secrete a substance for use in the body. For example, the thy...

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Gout: Condition characterized by abnormally elevated levels of uric acid in the blood, rec...

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Groin: The area where the thigh meets the hip.

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Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Hematuria: Blood in the urine. Hematuria may or may not be accompanied by pain, but it is...

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Heredity: The genetic transmission of characteristics from parent to child.

HIV: Acronym for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the cause of AIDS (acquired immunodefi...

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Hypercalciuria: Excess calcium in the urine.

Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to treat pa...

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Indicate: In medicine, to make a treatment or procedure advisable because of a particular ...

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Infant: A young baby, from birth to 12 months of age.

Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Inflammation: A localized reaction that produces redness, warmth, swelling, and pain as a ...

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Inflammatory bowel disease: A group of chronic intestinal diseases characterized by infla...

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Intervention: The act of intervening, interfering or interceding with the intent of modify...

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Intestine: The long, tubelike organ in the abdomen that completes the process of digestion...

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Intractable: Unstoppable. For example, intractable diarrhea is diarrhea that can't be stop...

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Intussusception: Infolding (prolapse) of a portion of the intestine within another immedia...

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Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Kidney stone: A stone in the kidney or a stone that originates in the kidney but has passe...

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Lithotripsy: A procedure to break a stone into small particles that can be passed in the u...

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Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Microscope: An optical instrument that augments the power of the eye to see small objects....

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Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

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Narcotic: 1. A drug that causes insensibility or stupor. A narcotic induces narcosi...

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Nausea: Stomach queasiness, the urge to vomit. Nausea can be brought on by many causes, in...

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Nephrolithiasis: The process of forming a kidney stone, a stone in the kidney (or lower do...

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Nidus: In medicine, any structure that resembles a nest in appearance or function. From th...

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Obstruction: Blockage of a passageway. See, for example: Airway obstruction; Intestinal o...

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Ovarian: Of or pertaining to the ovary.

Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Palpate: To touch or feel. For example, a physician may palpate the liver's edge when exam...

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Pancreas: A spongy, tube-shaped organ that is about 6 inches long and is located in the ba...

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Pancreatitis: Inflammation of the pancreas. Of the many causes of pancreatitis, the most c...

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Predispose: To make more likely or render susceptible. Smoking predisposes to a number of ...

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Pregnant: The state of carrying a developing fetus within the body.

Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan...

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Prostate: A gland within the male reproductive system that is located just below the blad...

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Prostate gland: A gland in the male reproductive system that is located just below the bla...

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Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Radiate: To spread out from a central area. For example, sciatic pain may radiate outward ...

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Radiation: 1. Rays of energy. Gamma rays and X-rays are two of the types of energy ...

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Recur: To occur again; to return. For example, a symptom, sign, or disease can recur.

Recurrent: Appearing or occurring again. For example, a recurrent fever is a fever that ha...

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Remedy: Something that consistently helps treat or cure a disease.

Renal: Having to do with the kidney. For example, renal cancer is cancer of the kidneys.

Rib: One of the 12 paired arches of bone that form the skeletal structure of the chest wal...

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Rib cage: The structure formed by the thoracic vertebrae and ribs, the sternum (breastbone...

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Risk factor: Something that increases a person's chances of developing a disease. For exam...

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Scan: As a noun, the data or image obtained from the examination of organs or regions of...

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Scrotum: The pouch of skin that contains the testes, epididymides, and lower portions of t...

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Sepsis: The presence of bacteria (bacteremia), other infectious organisms, or toxins creat...

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Shock: In medicine, a critical condition that is brought on by a sudden drop in blood flow...

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Stent: A tube designed to be inserted into a vessel or passageway to keep it open. Stents ...

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Stethoscope: An instrument that is used to transmit low-volume sounds such as a heartbeat ...

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Sweating: The act of secreting fluid from the skin by the sweat (sudoriferous) glands. The...

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Symptom: Any subjective evidence of disease. In contrast, a sign is objective. Blood comin...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Tomography: The process for generating a tomogram, a two-dimensional image of a slice or s...

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Trauma: A physical or emotional injury.

Ultrasound: High-frequency sound waves. Ultra-sound waves can be bounced off tissues by us...

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Ureter: One of the two tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Each ureter...

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Urethra: The tube that leads from the bladder and transports and discharges urine outside ...

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Uric acid: A breakdown product of purines that are part of many foods. In gout, there are ...

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Urinalysis: A test that is done in order to analyze urine. Because toxins and excess fluid...

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Urinary: Having to do with the function or anatomy of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or ur...

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Urinary tract: The organs of the body that produce, store, and discharge urine. These orga...

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Urine: Liquid waste produced by the kidneys. Urine is a clear, transparent fluid that norm...

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Urolithiasis: The process of forming stones in the kidney, bladder, and/or urethra (urina...

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Urologist: A physician who specializes in diseases of the urinary organs in females and th...

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Vessel: A tube in the body that carries fluids. Examples of vessels are blood vessels and ...

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Vitamins: The word "vitamin" was coined in 1911 by the Warsaw-born biochemist Casimir Funk...

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X-ray: High-energy radiation with waves shorter than those of visible light. X-ray is used...

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