Kidney Transplant Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Kidney Transplant article.

Abdomen: The belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the...

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Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Abdominal pain: Pain in the belly. Abdominal pain can be acute or chronic. It may reflect ...

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Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Absorption: Uptake. For example, intestinal absorption is the uptake of food (or other sub...

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Acne: Localized skin inflammation as a result of overactivity of the oil glands at the ba...

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Acquired: Not inherited, or present at birth (congenital), but developing after birth. For...

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Acute: Of abrupt onset, in reference to a disease. Acute often also connotes an illness th...

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Acute kidney failure: See: Acute renal failure.

Acute tubular necrosis: A severe form of acute renal failure that develops in people with ...

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Amyloidosis: A group of diseases that result from the abnormal deposition of a protein, ca...

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Anemia: The condition of having a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells or quantity ...

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Arms: An appendage in anatomy and in clinical trials. See: Arm.

Arteriogram: An X-ray in which an injection of dye shows blood vessels.

Artery: A vessel that carries blood high in oxygen content away from the heart to the far...

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Arthritis: Inflammation of a joint. When joints are inflamed they can develop stiffness, w...

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Avascular necrosis: A condition in which poor blood supply to an area of bone leads to bon...

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Basal cell carcinoma: The most common type of skin cancer, which commonly presents as a so...

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Belly: That part of the body that contains all of the structures between the chest and t...

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Bladder: A hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine. The kidneys filter waste f...

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Blood pressure: The blood pressure is the pressure of the blood within the arteries. It is...

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Blood sugar: Blood glucose. See also: High blood sugar; Low blood sugar.

Bone marrow: The soft blood-forming tissue that fills the cavities of bones and contains f...

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Breathing: The process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through ...

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Calcium: A mineral found mainly in the hard part of bones, where it is stored. Calcium is ...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Carcinoma: Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover body organs. Ex...

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Carcinoma in situ: Cancer that has stayed in the place where it began and has not spread t...

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Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c...

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Cervix: The cervix is the lower, narrow part of the uterus (womb). The uterus, a hollow, ...

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Chemotherapy: 1. In the original sense, a chemical that binds to and specifically k...

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Chest: The area of the body located between the neck and the abdomen. The chest contains t...

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Cholesterol: The most common type of steroid in the body. Cholesterol has a reputation for...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Chronic kidney failure: See: Chronic renal failure.

Chronic renal failure: Now more commonly classified as chronic kidney disease and is liste...

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Circulatory: Having to do with circulation, the movement of fluid in a regular or circuito...

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Circulatory system: The system that moves blood throughout the body. The circulatory syste...

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Complication: In medicine, an unanticipated problem that arises following, and is a result...

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Congenital: A condition that is present at birth, whether or not it is inherited.

Creatinine: A chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism. Creatinine...

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Cure: 1. To heal, to make well, to restore to good health. 2. A time withou...

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Cystinosis: A genetic disease characterized by the widespread deposition of the amino acid...

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Dehydration: Excessive loss of body water. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that ca...

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Diabetes: Refers to diabetes mellitus or, less often, to diabetes insipidus. Diabetes mell...

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Dialysis: The process of cleansing the blood by passing it through a special machine. Dial...

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Donor: The giver of a tissue or an organ, such as a blood donor or kidney donor.

Edema: The swelling of soft tissues as a result of excess fluid accumulation. Edema is oft...

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Electrolyte: A substance that dissociates into ions in solution and acquires the capacity ...

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Emergency department: The department of a hospital responsible for the provision of medica...

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End-stage renal disease: ESRD. Chronic irreversible renal failure. Also known as Chronic...

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ESRD: End-stage renal disease.

Essential: In medicine, of unknown cause, as in essential hypertension (high blood pressur...

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Fatigue: A condition characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency ...

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Fever: Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 degr...

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Fracture: A break in bone or cartilage. Although usually a result of trauma, a fracture ca...

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Glomerular: Pertaining to the glomerulus, a tiny structure in the kidney that filters the ...

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Glomeruli: The plural of glomerulus.

Gout: Condition characterized by abnormally elevated levels of uric acid in the blood, rec...

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Graft: Healthy skin, bone, kidney, liver, or other tissue that is taken from one part of t...

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Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Heart attack: The death of heart muscle due to the loss of blood supply. The loss of bloo...

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Heart disease: Any disorder that affects the heart. Sometimes the term "heart disease" is ...

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Heart rate: The number of heartbeats per unit of time, usually per minute. The heart rate ...

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Hemolytic: Referring to hemolysis, the destruction of red blood cells which leads to the r...

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Hemolytic uremic syndrome: A condition characterized by the breakup of red blood cells (he...

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Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, irrespective of the cause. Hepatitis is caused by a ...

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Hepatitis C: Inflammation of the liver due to the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is usuall...

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Hepatobiliary: Having to do with the liver plus the gallbladder, bile ducts, or bile. For ...

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Heroin: Semisynthetic drug derived from morphine. Discovered in 1874, it was introduced co...

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High blood pressure: A repeatedly elevated blood pressure exceeding 140 over 90 mmHg. Chro...

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High blood sugar: An elevated level of the sugar glucose in the blood. Also called hypergl...

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HIV: Acronym for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the cause of AIDS (acquired immunodefi...

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Hypertension: High blood pressure, defined as a repeatedly elevated blood pressure exceedi...

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Iliac: Pertaining to the ilium.

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Immune: Protected against infection, usually by the presence of antibodies.

Immune system: A complex system that is responsible for distinguishing a person from every...

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Immunosuppression: Suppression of the immune system and its ability to fight infection. Im...

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In situ: In the normal location. An in situ tumor is one that is confined to its site of o...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Inflammation: A localized reaction that produces redness, warmth, swelling, and pain as a ...

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Injury: Harm or hurt. To harm, hurt, or wound. The word injure may be in physical or emot...

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Interstitial: Pertaining to being between things, especially between things that are norma...

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Itching: An uncomfortable sensation in the skin that feels as if something is crawling on ...

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Kaposi sarcoma: A relatively rare type of skin malignancy that tends to afflict elderly pe...

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Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Kidney transplant: Replacement of a diseased, damaged, or missing kidney with a donor ki...

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Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Liver disease: Liver disease refers to any disorder of the liver. The liver is a large org...

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Lungs: The lungs are a pair of breathing organs located with the chest which remove carbon...

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Lupus: A chronic inflammatory disease that is caused by autoimmunity. Patients with lupus ...

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Lymphoma: A tumor of the lymphoid tissue. The major types of lymphoma are Hodgkin's diseas...

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Marrow: The bone marrow.

Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

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MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging.

Mucous: Pertaining to mucus, a thick fluid produced by the lining of some tissues of the b...

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Myeloma: A tumor of antibody-producing cells, called plasma cells, that are normally foun...

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Nausea: Stomach queasiness, the urge to vomit. Nausea can be brought on by many causes, in...

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Necrosis: The death of living cells or tissues. Necrosis can be due, for example, to ische...

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Nephritis: Inflammation of the kidney, which causes impaired kidney function. Nephritis ca...

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Nephrologist: A physician specializing in treating diseases of the kidneys.

Nephropathy: Any kidney disease.

Neurological: Having to do with the nerves or the nervous system as, for example, a neurol...

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Nuclear medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the use of radioisotopes in the di...

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Operation: In medicine, a surgical procedure. Many operations are named after persons. The...

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Organ: A relatively independent part of the body that carries out one or more special func...

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Organ failure: The failure of an essential system in the body. Multiple organ failure is t...

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Osteodystrophy: A bone disorder that adversely affects bone growth. See also renal osteod...

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Osteoporosis: Thinning of the bones, with reduction in bone mass, due to depletion of calc...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Perineum: The area between the anus and the scrotum in the male and between the anus and t...

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Polycystic kidney disease: One of the genetic disorders characterized by the development ...

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Pregnant: The state of carrying a developing fetus within the body.

Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan...

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Progressive: Increasing in scope or severity, advancing, or going forward. For example, a ...

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Proteins: Large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific orde...

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Prune belly syndrome: Partial or complete absence of the abdominal muscles so that the out...

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Pulmonary: Having to do with the lungs.

Pulmonary edema: Fluid in the lungs.

Quality of life: The patient's ability to enjoy normal life activities. Quality of life is...

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Recipient: In medicine, someone who is given something, such as a blood transfusion or an ...

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Red blood cells: The blood cells that carry oxygen. Red cells contain hemoglobin and it is...

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Reflux: The term used when liquid backs up into the esophagus from the stomach.

Regimen: A plan or a regulated course, such as a diet, exercise, or treatment, that is des...

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Rejection: In transplantation biology, when the body's immune system attacks transplanted ...

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Relapse: The return of signs and symptoms of a disease after a remission.

Renal: Having to do with the kidney. For example, renal cancer is cancer of the kidneys.

Renal cell carcinoma: Cancer that develops in the lining of the renal tubules, which filte...

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Renal osteodystrophy: A bone disorder that adversely affects bone growth and is caused by ...

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Resolution: In genetics, the degree of molecular detail on a physical map of DNA. Resoluti...

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Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of joint...

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Sarcoma: One of a group of tumors usually arising from connective tissue. Most sarcomas ar...

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Scan: As a noun, the data or image obtained from the examination of organs or regions of...

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Scleroderma: A disease of connective tissue that causes scar tissue (fibrosis) to form in ...

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Sclerosis: Localized hardening of skin. Sclerosis is generally caused by underlying diseas...

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Shortness of breath: Difficulty in breathing. Medically referred to as dyspnea. Shortness ...

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Sickle cell anemia: A genetic blood disease due to the presence of an abnormal form of hem...

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Sirolimus: A naturally occurring substance discovered in a soil sample from Easter Island...

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Squamous cell carcinoma: Cancer that begins in squamous cells -- thin, flat cells that loo...

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Stomach: The digestive organ that is located in the upper abdomen, under the ribs. The upp...

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Surgeon: A physician who treats disease, injury, or deformity via operative or manual meth...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Syndrome: A combination of symptoms and signs that together represent a disease process.

Systemic: Affecting the entire body. A systemic disease such as diabetes can affect the wh...

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Systemic lupus erythematosus: A chronic inflammatory condition caused by an autoimmune di...

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Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot in a blood vessel. The vessel may be...

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Transplant: The grafting of a tissue from one place to another, just as in botany a bu...

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Tremor: An abnormal, repetitive shaking movement of the body. Tremors have many causes and...

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Tumor: An abnormal mass of tissue. Tumors are a classic sign of inflammation, and can be ...

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Ureter: One of the two tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Each ureter...

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Urinary: Having to do with the function or anatomy of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or ur...

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Urinary tract: The organs of the body that produce, store, and discharge urine. These orga...

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Urine: Liquid waste produced by the kidneys. Urine is a clear, transparent fluid that norm...

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Vascular: Relating to blood vessels. For example, the vascular system in the body includes...

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Vein: A blood vessel that carries blood that is low in oxygen content from the body back t...

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Vulva: The female external genital organs, including the labia, clitoris, and entrance to ...

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Wilms tumor: A childhood form of kidney cancer with a peak age of occurrence at 3 years of...

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