Liver Blood Tests Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Liver Blood Tests article.

Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Abdominal pain: Pain in the belly. Abdominal pain can be acute or chronic. It may reflect ...

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Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Acetaminophen: A nonaspirin pain reliever or analgesic. Acetaminophen may be given alone t...

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Acute: Of abrupt onset, in reference to a disease. Acute often also connotes an illness th...

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Alanine: An amino acid, one of the 20 building blocks of protein. It is not essential to ...

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Albumin: The main protein in human blood and the key to regulating the osmotic pressure of...

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Alcohol abuse: Use of alcoholic beverages to excess, either on individual occasions (binge...

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Alkaline phosphatase: An enzyme that liberates phosphate under alkaline conditions and is ...

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Amino acids: The building blocks of polypeptides and proteins.

Aminotransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of an amino group from a donor mol...

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Antidepressants: Anything, and especially a drug, used to prevent or treat depression.

Autoimmune: Pertaining to autoimmunity, a misdirected immune response that occurs when the...

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Autoimmune hepatitis: A disease in which the body's immune system attacks liver cells, cau...

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Bile: Bile is a yellow-green fluid that is made by the liver, stored in the gallbladder an...

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Biliary: Having to do with the gallbladder, bile ducts, or bile. The biliary system itself...

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Bilirubin: A yellow-orange compound that is produced by the breakdown of hemoglobin from r...

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Blood count: The calculated number of white or red blood cells (WBCs or RBCs) in a cubic m...

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Blood transfusion: The transfer of blood or blood components from one person (the donor) i...

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Bowel: The small and large intestine.

Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Carcinoma: Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover body organs. Ex...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Cirrhosis: Liver disease characterized by irreversible scarring. Alcohol and viral hepatit...

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Coagulation: In medicine, the clotting of blood. The process by which the blood clots to f...

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Colitis: Inflammation of the large intestine (the colon). There are many forms of coliti...

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Complete blood count: A set values of the cellular (formed elements) of blood. These meas...

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Crohn's disease: A chronic inflammatory disease, primarily involving the small and large ...

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Duct: A walled passageway, such as a lymph duct, that carries fluid from one place to anot...

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Electrolyte: A substance that dissociates into ions in solution and acquires the capacity ...

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Enzyme: Proteins that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction in a living organism. An e...

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Enzymes: Proteins that act as a catalysts in mediating and speeding a specific chemical re...

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Fatigue: A condition characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency ...

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Fever: Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 F (37...

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Gallbladder: A pear-shaped organ located below the liver that stores the bile secreted by ...

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Gallstones: Stones that form when substances in the bile harden. Gallstones can be as smal...

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Genetic: Having to do with genes and genetic
information.

Glucose: The simple sugar that is the chief source of energy. Glucose is found in the bloo...

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Glutamate: A form of glutamic acid. See: Glutamic acid.

Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Heart failure: Inability of the heart to keep up with the demands on it and, specifically...

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Hemochromatosis: An inherited disorder characterized by abnormally high absorption of iron...

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Hepatic: Having to do with the liver.

Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, irrespective of the cause. Hepatitis is caused by a ...

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Hepatitis A: Inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is usual...

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Hepatitis B: Inflammation of the liver due to the hepatitis B virus (HBV), once thought to...

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Hepatocellular carcinoma: A cancer arising from the liver cells (hepatocytes). Liver damag...

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Herbal: 1. An adjective, referring to herbs, as in an herbal tea.
2. A...

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Immune: Protected against infection, usually by the presence of antibodies.

Immune system: A complex system that is responsible for distinguishing a person from every...

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Immunity: The condition of being immune. Immunity can be innate'for example, humans are in...

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Indicate: In medicine, to make a treatment or procedure advisable because of a particular ...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Inflammation: A localized reaction that produces redness, warmth, swelling, and pain as a ...

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Inflammatory bowel disease: A group of chronic intestinal diseases characterized by infla...

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Injury: Harm or hurt. To harm, hurt, or wound. The word injure may be in physical or emot...

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Iron: An essential mineral. Iron is necessary for the transport of oxygen (via hemoglobin ...

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Itching: An uncomfortable sensation in the skin that feels as if something is crawling on ...

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Jaundice: Yellow staining of the skin and sclerae (the whites of the eyes) by abnormally h...

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Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Laboratory: A place for doing tests and research procedures, and for preparing chemicals a...

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Lactate dehydrogenase: (LDH) An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of lactate to pyruvat...

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LDH: Lactate dehydrogenase.

Lipitor: See: Atorvastatin.

Liter: A metric measure of capacity that is equal to the volume of 1 kilogram of water at ...

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Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Liver disease: Liver disease refers to any disorder of the liver. The liver is a large org...

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Malaise: A vague feeling of discomfort, one that cannot be pinned down but is often sensed...

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Medical history: 1. In clinical medicine, the patient's past and present which may ...

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Metabolic: Relating to metabolism, the whole range of biochemical processes that occur wit...

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Molecule: The smallest unit of a substance that can exist alone and retain the character o...

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Nausea: Stomach queasiness, the urge to vomit. Nausea can be brought on by many causes, in...

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Normal range: Characteristic of 95 percent of values from a normal population. The remaini...

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Obesity: The state of being well above one's normal weight.

Obstruction: Blockage of a passageway. See, for example: Airway obstruction; Intestinal o...

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Organ: A relatively independent part of the body that carries out one or more special func...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Poisoning: Taking a substance that is injurious to health or can cause death. Poisoning i...

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Pregnancy: The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. Thi...

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Proteins: Large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific orde...

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Psychiatric: Pertaining to or within the purview of psychiatry, the medical specialty conc...

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Seizure: Uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain, which may produce a physical conv...

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Serum: The clear liquid that can be separated from clotted blood. Serum differs from plas...

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SGPT: Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, an enzyme that is normally present in liver and...

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Shock: In medicine, a critical condition that is brought on by a sudden drop in blood flow...

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Statins: A class of drugs that lower cholesterol.

Steatohepatitis: Fatty inflammation of the liver, usually in alcoholics. Steato- refers to...

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Sulfonamides: The sulfa-related group of antibiotics, which are used to treat bacterial in...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Transfusion: The transfer of blood or blood products from one person (the donor) into the ...

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Tuberculosis: A highly contagious infection caused by the bacterium called Mycobacteriu...

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Tubes: The "tubes" are medically known as the Fallopian tubes. There are two Fallopian tub...

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Tylenol: See: Acetaminophen.

Ulcerative colitis: A bowel disease that is characterized by inflammation with ulcer forma...

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Ultrasound: High-frequency sound waves. Ultra-sound waves can be bounced off tissues by us...

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Vaccination: Injection of a killed microbe in order to stimulate the immune system against...

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Viral: Of or pertaining to a virus. For example, if a person has a viral rash, the rash wa...

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Viral hepatitis: Liver inflammation caused by a virus. Specific hepatitis viruses have bee...

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Viruses: Small living particles that can infect cells and change how the cells function. I...

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