Liver Transplant Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Liver Transplant article.

Abdomen: The belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the...

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Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Absorb: 1. To take something in, as through the skin or the intestine.
2....

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Absorption: Uptake. For example, intestinal absorption is the uptake of food (or other sub...

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Acetaminophen: A nonaspirin pain reliever or analgesic. Acetaminophen may be given alone t...

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Acne: Localized skin inflammation as a result of overactivity of the oil glands at the ba...

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Acute: Of abrupt onset, in reference to a disease. Acute often also connotes an illness th...

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Acyclovir: (Brand name: Zovirax) One of a group of antiviral drugs that acts against the...

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Albumin: The main protein in human blood and the key to regulating the osmotic pressure of...

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Alcoholism: Physical dependence on alcohol to the extent that stopping alcohol use would b...

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Allograft: The transplant of an organ or tissue from one individual to another of the same...

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Angiography: A procedure performed to view blood vessels after injecting them with a radio...

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Antibiotic: A drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms. ...

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Antifungal: A medication that limits or prevents the growth of yeasts and other fungal org...

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Ascites: An abnormal accumulation of fluid within the abdomen. There are many causes of as...

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Aspirin: Once the Bayer trademark for acetylsalicylic acid, now the common name for this a...

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Atresia: Absence of a normal opening, or failure of a structure to be tubular. Atresia can...

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Bacteria: Single-celled microorganisms that can exist either as independent (free-living) ...

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Bacterial: Of or pertaining to bacteria, as in a bacterial lung infection.

Belly: That part of the body that contains all of the structures between the chest and t...

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Benzodiazepines: A class of drugs that act as tranquilizers and are commonly used in the t...

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Bile: Bile is a yellow-green fluid that is made by the liver, stored in the gallbladder a...

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Biliary: Having to do with the gallbladder, bile ducts, or bile. The biliary system itself...

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Biliary atresia: Congenital absence or closure of the major bile ducts, the ducts that dra...

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Bilirubin: A yellow-orange compound that is produced by the breakdown of hemoglobin from r...

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Biopsy: The removal of a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope to check for ...

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Blood clot: A mass of coagulated blood. A blood clot can block a major blood vessel, causi...

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Blood clots: Blood that has been converted from a liquid to a solid state. Also called a t...

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Blood pressure: The blood pressure is the pressure of the blood within the arteries. It is...

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Blood sugar: Blood glucose. See also: High blood sugar; Low blood sugar.

Blurred vision: Lack of sharpness of vision with, as a result, the inability to see fine d...

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Body type: A somewhat old-fashioned term used to classify the human shape into three prima...

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Bone marrow: The soft blood-forming tissue that fills the cavities of bones and contains f...

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Bowel: The small and large intestine.

Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Breastfeeding: Feeding a child human breast milk. According to the American Academy of Ped...

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Breathing: The process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through ...

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Calcium: A mineral found mainly in the hard part of bones, where it is stored. Calcium is ...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Cardiologist: A physician who specializes in treating heart disorders.

Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c...

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Chest: The area of the body located between the neck and the abdomen. The chest contains t...

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Chickenpox: A highly infectious viral disease also known medically as varicella -- in many...

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Cholesterol: The most common type of steroid in the body. Cholesterol has a reputation for...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Cirrhosis: Liver disease characterized by irreversible scarring. Alcohol and viral hepatit...

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Coma: A state of deep, unarousable unconsciousness. A coma may occur as a result of head t...

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Complication: In medicine, an unanticipated problem that arises following, and is a result...

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Cough: A rapid expulsion of air from the lungs, typically in order to clear the lung airwa...

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Creatinine: A chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism. Creatinine...

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CT scan: Computerized tomography scan. Pictures of structures within the body created by a...

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Diabetes: Refers to diabetes mellitus or, less often, to diabetes insipidus. Diabetes mell...

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Discharge: 1.The flow of fluid from part of the body, such as from the nose or vag...

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Diuretic: Something that promotes the formation of urine by the kidney. All diuretics caus...

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Donor: The giver of a tissue or an organ, such as a blood donor or kidney donor.

Drain: A device for removing fluid from a cavity or wound. A drain is typically a tube or ...

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Duct: A walled passageway, such as a lymph duct, that carries fluid from one place to anot...

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ECG: Electrocardiogram.

Electrocardiogram: A recording of the electrical activity of the heart. Abbreviated ECG an...

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Emergency department: The department of a hospital responsible for the provision of medica...

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Encephalopathy: Disease, damage, or malfunction of the brain. In general, encephalopathy i...

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Esophagus: The tube that connects the pharynx (throat) with the stomach. The esophagus lie...

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Essential: In medicine, of unknown cause, as in essential hypertension (high blood pressur...

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Fats: Plural of the word "fat". See the definition of fat.

Fever: Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 degr...

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Fungal: Pertaining to a fungus. For example, a fungal skin infection.

Fungi: Plural of fungus.

Fungus: A single-celled or multicellular organism. Fungi can be true pathogens (such as hi...

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Gallbladder: A pear-shaped organ located below the liver that stores the bile secreted by ...

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Gastric: Having to do with the stomach.

Gastroenterologist: A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases...

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Gastroenterology: The medical specialty devoted to the study, diagnosis and treatment of d...

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Gastrointestinal: Adjective referring collectively to the stomach and small and large inte...

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Genital: Pertaining to the external and/or internal organs of reproduction.

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Glucose: The simple sugar that is the chief source of energy. Glucose is found in the bloo...

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Graft: Healthy skin, bone, kidney, liver, or other tissue that is taken from one part of t...

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Gynecologist: A physician who specializes in treating diseases of the female reproductive ...

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Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Heart rate: The number of heartbeats per unit of time, usually per minute. The heart rate ...

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Hepatic: Having to do with the liver.

Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, irrespective of the cause. Hepatitis is caused by a ...

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Hepatitis B: Inflammation of the liver due to the hepatitis B virus (HBV), once thought t...

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Hepatitis C: Inflammation of the liver due to the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is usuall...

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Hepatology: The field of liver disease. The liver is the body's largest organ and hepatolo...

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Herpes: A family of viruses. Herpes also refers to infection with one of the human herpesv...

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Herpes zoster: Also called shingles, zona, and zoster. The culprit is the varicella-zoster...

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Herpesvirus: One of a family of viruses that contain DNA and that cause infections in huma...

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High blood pressure: A repeatedly elevated blood pressure exceeding 140 over 90 mmHg. Chro...

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HIV: Acronym for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the cause of AIDS (acquired immunodefi...

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Immune: Protected against infection, usually by the presence of antibodies.

Immune system: A complex system that is responsible for distinguishing a person from every...

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Immunosuppressant: An agent that can suppress or prevent the immune response. Immunosuppre...

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Immunosuppression: Suppression of the immune system and its ability to fight infection. Im...

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Immunosuppressive: 1. Pertaining to immunosuppression, the suppression of the immun...

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Incidence: The frequency with which something, such as a disease or trait, appears in a pa...

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Incision: A cut through skin or other tissue performed by a health care professional.

Indicate: In medicine, to make a treatment or procedure advisable because of a particular ...

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Indication: 1. In medicine, a condition which makes a particular treatment or proce...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Inflammatory response: A fundamental type of response by the body to disease and injury, a...

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Injury: Harm or hurt. To harm, hurt, or wound. The word injure may be in physical or emot...

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Intensive care: See critical care.

Internal medicine: The medical specialty dedicated to the diagnosis and medical treatment ...

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International normalized ratio: A system established by the World Health Organization (WHO...

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Intervention: The act of intervening, interfering or interceding with the intent of modify...

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Itching: An uncomfortable sensation in the skin that feels as if something is crawling on ...

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Jaundice: Yellow staining of the skin and sclerae (the whites of the eyes) by abnormally h...

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Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Laboratory: A place for doing tests and research procedures, and for preparing chemicals a...

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Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Liver biopsy: A procedure in which a small sample of the liver is removed for the diagnosi...

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Liver disease: Liver disease refers to any disorder of the liver. The liver is a large org...

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Liver transplant: Surgery to remove a diseased liver and replace it with a healthy liver (...

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Living donor liver transplantation: An option for patients who need a liver transplant. In...

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Lungs: The lungs are a pair of breathing organs located with the chest which remove carbon...

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Marrow: The bone marrow.

MELD: Acronym for Model End Stage Liver Disease. A disease severity scoring system for adu...

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Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

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Muromonab-CD3: A murine monoclonal antibody. See: OKT3.

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Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Nausea: Stomach queasiness, the urge to vomit. Nausea can be brought on by many causes, in...

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Obese: Well above ones normal weight. A person has traditionally been considered to be obe...

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Objective: In a microscope, the objective (also called the objective lens) is the lens nea...

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OKT3: Brand name for muromonab-CD3, an immunosuppressant drug given intravenously to rever...

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Organ: A relatively independent part of the body that carries out one or more special func...

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Osteoporosis: Thinning of the bones, with reduction in bone mass, due to depletion of calc...

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Outpatient: A patient who is not hospitalized, but instead comes to a physician?s office, ...

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Oxygen: The odorless gas that is present in the air and necessary to maintain life. Oxygen...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Pediatric: Pertaining to children.

PELD: Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease. A disease severity scoring system for children un...

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Peritonitis: Inflammation of the peritoneum (The peritoneum is the tissue layer of cells l...

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Pharmacy: A location where prescription medications are sold. A pharmacy is constantly sup...

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Pneumocystis: Pneumocystis jiroveci (previously classified as Pneumocystis carinii), the o...

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Pneumocystis carinii: Now called Pneumocystis jiroveci. See: Pneumocystis.

Pneumonia: Inflammation of one or both lungs, with dense areas of lung inflammation. Pneum...

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Poisoning: Taking a substance that is injurious to health or can cause death. Poisoning i...

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Polio: Abbreviation for poliomyelitis, an acute and sometimes devastating disease caused ...

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Potassium: The major positive ion (cation) found inside cells. The chemical notation for p...

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PPD: 1. Postpartum depression. 2. Purified protein derivative (the PPD skin ...

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Pregnancy: The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. Thi...

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Pregnant: The state of carrying a developing fetus within the body.

Probability: The likelihood that something will happen. For example, a probability of less...

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Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Proteins: Large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific orde...

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Psychiatrist: A physician who specializes in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of m...

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Pulse: The rhythmic dilation of an artery that results from beating of the heart. Pulse is...

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Quality of life: The patient's ability to enjoy normal life activities. Quality of life is...

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Rash: Breaking out (eruption) of the skin. A rash can be caused by an underlying medical c...

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Recipient: In medicine, someone who is given something, such as a blood transfusion or an ...

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Registry: A collection of information. A registry is usually organized so that the data in...

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Rejection: In transplantation biology, when the body's immune system attacks transplanted ...

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Scan: As a noun, the data or image obtained from the examination of organs or regions of...

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Sensation: In medicine and physiology, sensation refers to the registration of an incoming...

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Shingles: An acute infection caused by the herpes zoster virus, the same virus as causes ...

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Sirolimus: A naturally occurring substance discovered in a soil sample from Easter Island...

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Sleep: The body's rest cycle.

Spleen: An organ that is located in the upper-left part of the abdomen, not far from the s...

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Sputum: Mucous material from the lungs that is produced (brought up) by coughing.

Stage: As regards cancer, the extent of a cancer, especially whether the disease has spre...

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Stenosis: A narrowing. For example, aortic stenosis is a narrowing of the aortic valve in ...

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Steroid: One of a large group of chemical substances classified by a specific carbon struc...

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Stomach: The digestive organ that is located in the upper abdomen, under the ribs. The upp...

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Substance: 1. Material with particular features.
2. The material that...

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Substance abuse: The excessive use of a substance, especially alcohol or a drug. (There is...

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Surgeon: A physician who treats disease, injury, or deformity via operative or manual meth...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Swallowing tube: Descriptive term for the esophagus. See: Esophagus.

Temple: The area just behind and to the side of the forehead and the eye, above the side o...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Throat: The throat is the anterior (front) portion of the neck beginning at the back of th...

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Tired: A feeling of a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency of accomplishment,...

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Tiredness: See: Tired.

Tongue: A strong muscle that is anchored to the floor of the mouth. The tongue is covered ...

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Trachea: A tube-like portion of the respiratory tract that connects the larynx with the br...

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Transplant: The grafting of a tissue from one place to another, just as in botany a bu...

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Trauma: A physical or emotional injury.

Troche: A small medicated lozenge designed to dissolve. For example, to soothe the throat ...

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Tuberculosis: A highly contagious infection caused by the bacterium called Mycobacterium ...

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Tylenol: See: Acetaminophen.

Ultrasound: High-frequency sound waves. Ultra-sound waves can be bounced off tissues by us...

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UNOS: United Network for Organ Sharing.

Unwell: Not well or not in good health. Ailing, sick, or indisposed. For example, "I am we...

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Urine: Liquid waste produced by the kidneys. Urine is a clear, transparent fluid that norm...

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Vaccines: Microbial preparations of killed or modified microorganisms that can stimulate a...

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Vagina: The muscular canal that extends from the cervix to the outside of the body. It is ...

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Vaginal discharge: Vaginal discharge is a fluid produced by glands in the vaginal wall and...

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Vaginal yeast infection: Infection of the vagina caused by a fungus known as Candida...

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Viral: Of or pertaining to a virus. For example, if a person has a viral rash, the rash wa...

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Virus: A microorganism that is smaller than a bacterium that cannot grow or reproduce apar...

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Viruses: Small living particles that can infect cells and change how the cells function. I...

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Vital: Necessary to maintain life. For example, breathing is a vital function.

Vitamins: The word "vitamin" was coined in 1911 by the Warsaw-born biochemist Casimir Funk...

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Water retention: A nonspecific term meaning the accumulation of excess fluids in body tiss...

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White blood cell: One of the cells the body makes to help fight infections. There are seve...

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White blood cell count (leukocyte count): The number of white blood cells (WBCs) in the b...

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X-ray: High-energy radiation with waves shorter than those of visible light. X-ray is used...

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Yeast infection: Overgrowth of yeast can affect the skin (yeast rash), mouth (thrush), di...

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Medical Dictionary