Lupus: Criteria for Diagnosis
The following criteria are used to distinguish lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus, or SLE) from other autoimmune and rheumatic diseases.
A person with 4 of these 11 conditions can be classified as having lupus. These conditions may be present all at once or they may appear in succession over a period of time.1
- Butterfly (malar) rash on cheeks
- Rash on face, arms, neck, torso (discoid rash)
- Skin rashes that result from exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet light (photosensitivity)
- Mouth or nasal sores (ulcers), usually painless
- Joint swelling, stiffness, pain involving two or more joints (arthritis)
- Inflammation of the membranes surrounding the lungs (pleuritis) or heart (pericarditis).
- Abnormalities in urine, such as increased protein or clumps of red blood cells or kidney cells, called cell casts, in the urine
- Nervous system problems, such as seizures or psychosis, without known cause
- Problems with the blood, such as reduced numbers of red blood cells (anemia), platelets, or white blood cells
- Laboratory tests indicating increased autoimmune activity (antibodies against normal tissue)
- Positive antinuclear antibody (ANA) test
Petri MA (2005). Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical aspects. In WJ Koopman, LW Moreland, eds., Arthritis and Allied Conditions: A Textbook of Rheumatology, 15th ed., vol. 2, pp.1473–1496. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
|Primary Medical Reviewer||Anne C. Poinier, MD - Internal Medicine|
|Specialist Medical Reviewer||Stanford M. Shoor, MD - Rheumatology|
|Last Revised||May 7, 2010|