Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Hot flashes: Hot flashes are the most common symptom of menopause. According to some studies, hot flashes occur in as many as 75% of perimenopausal women. Hot flash symptoms vary among women. Commonly, the hot flash is a feeling of warmth that spreads over the body, lasting from around 30 seconds to a few minutes. Flushed (reddened) skin, palpitations (feeling a strong heartbeat), and sweating often accompany hot flashes. Hot flashes often increase skin temperature and pulse, and they can cause insomnia, or sleeplessness. Hot flashes usually last 2
to 3 years, but many women can experience them for up to 5 years. An even smaller percentage may have them for more than 15 years.
Breast changes: Menopause may cause changes in the shape of the breasts.
Thinning of the skin
Bone loss: Rapid bone loss is common during the perimenopausal years. Most women reach their peak bone density when aged 25
to 30 years. After that, bone loss averages 0.13% per year. During perimenopause, bone loss accelerates to about a 3% loss per year. Later, it drops off to about a 2% loss per year. No pain is usually associated with bone loss. However, bone loss can cause osteoporosis, a condition that increases the risk of bone fractures. These fractures can be intensely painful and can interfere with daily life. They also can increase the risk of death.
Cholesterol: Cholesterol profiles also change
significantly at the time of menopause. Total cholesterol and LDL ("bad") cholesterol
levels increase. Increased LDL cholesterol is associated with an increased risk of heart disease.
Heart disease risk increases after menopause, although it is unclear exactly how much is due to aging and how much is caused by the hormonal changes that occur at the time of menopause. Women who undergo premature menopause or have their ovaries removed surgically at an early age are at an increased risk of heart disease.
Weight gain: A three year study of healthy women nearing menopause found an average gain of
five pounds during the three years. Hormonal changes and aging are both possible factors in this weight gain.
Bone Mineral Density TestsOsteoporosis (or porous bone) is a disease in which bones become weak and are more likely to break. Bone mineral density tests check the strength and solidness ...learn more >>