Myelin and the Central Nervous System Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Myelin and the Central Nervous System article.

Anatomy: The study of human or animal form, by observation or examination of the living be...

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Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Brainstem: The lowest part of the brain which merges with the spinal cord and provides the...

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Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c...

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Cerebellum: The portion of the brain that is in the back of the head, between the cerebrum...

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Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain. It is divided into two hemispheres, or halves.

Cortex: The outer layer of any organ.

Gland: A group of cells that secrete a substance for use in the body. For example, the thy...

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Gray matter: The cortex of the brain, which contains nerve cell bodies. The gray matter is...

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Hypothalamus: The area of the brain that secretes substances that influence pituitary and ...

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Immune: Protected against infection, usually by the presence of antibodies.

Immune system: A complex system that is responsible for distinguishing a person from every...

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Magnetic resonance imaging: A procedure that uses magnetism, radio waves, and a computer t...

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Medulla: The innermost part. For example, the adrenal medulla is the innermost part of the...

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Memory: 1. The ability to recover information about past events or knowledge. ...

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Metabolism: The whole range of biochemical processes that occur within a living organism. ...

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MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging.

Multiple sclerosis: A disease that is characterized by loss of myelin (demyelinization). A...

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Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Myelin: The fatty substance that covers and protects nerves. Myelin is a layered tissue th...

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Nerve: A bundle of fibers that uses electrical and chemical signals to transmit sensory an...

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Nerve cell: See: Neuron.

Node: Literally a knot, a node is a collection of tissue. For example a lymph node, is a ...

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Peripheral: Situated away from the center, as opposed to centrally located.

Peripheral nervous system: The portion of the nervous system that is outside the brain and...

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Pituitary: 1. As an adjective, pertaining to the pituitary gland or its hormonal se...

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Pituitary gland: The main endocrine gland. It is a small structure in the head. It is ca...

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Pons: A specific section of the brain formed by the rounded prominence on the front surfac...

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Proteins: Large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific orde...

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Sclerosis: Localized hardening of skin. Sclerosis is generally caused by underlying diseas...

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Spinal cord: The major column of nerve tissue that is connected to the brain and lies with...

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Stress: In a medical or biological context stress is a physical, mental, or emotional fact...

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Vertebrae: The preferred plural of vertebra. (The alternate plural is vertebras.) See also...

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Voluntary: Done in accordance with the conscious will of the individual. The opposite of i...

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