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NDM-1 (cont.)

What Are Symptoms and Signs of a Person Infected With Bacteria Carrying NDM-1?

The major sign or symptom that a person is infected with bacteria carrying NDM-1 is failure of antibiotic treatments (oral or IV) to improve the patient's condition, especially if the patient is infected with a gram-negative bacterial type and is being treated with an antibiotic that contains a beta-lactam ring structure. In addition, if the person has gone to another country (for example, India) for elective surgery or was recently treated with antibiotics for an infection and has returned to the U.S. or another industrialized country with the infection, caregivers should be suspicious that a bacteria producing NDM-1 may be causing the infection. Currently, these are the major clues to suggest infection with NDM-1.

Because NDM-1 can be carried by several types of gram-negative bacteria, the signs and symptoms of the diseases are of little or no help in distinguishing whether the patient has an organism expressing the enzyme until antibiotic treatments fail. However, because gram-negative bacteria are known to cause many diseases (for example, gastrointestinal problems, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and some wound infections), patients with these diseases that require antibiotic treatments and are not recovering appropriately with treatments should have the gram-negative bacteria isolated and tested for antibiotic resistance.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 7/28/2014

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