Neuropathy Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Neuropathy article.

Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Acetaminophen: A nonaspirin pain reliever or analgesic. Acetaminophen may be given alone t...

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Acupuncture: The practice of inserting needles into the body to reduce pain or induce anes...

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ALA: 1. Alpha-linolenic acid 2.Aminolevulinic acid, a naturally occurring ...

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Alcohol abuse: Use of alcoholic beverages to excess, either on individual occasions (binge...

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Alcoholism: Physical dependence on alcohol to the extent that stopping alcohol use would b...

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Amitriptyline: An antidepressant medication. In some patients with depression, abnormal l...

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Amputation: Removal of part or all of a body part that is enclosed by skin. Amputation can...

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Amyloidosis: A group of diseases that result from the abnormal deposition of a protein, ca...

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Anesthetic: A substance that causes lack of feeling or awareness, dulling pain to permit s...

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Ankle: The ankle joint is complex. It is made up of two joints: the true ankle joint and ...

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Antidepressants: Anything, and especially a drug, used to prevent or treat depression.

Antioxidant: A substance that reduces damage due to oxygen, such as that caused by free ra...

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Arms: An appendage in anatomy and in clinical trials. See: Arm.

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Arsenic: A metallic element that forms a number of poisonous compounds, arsenic is found i...

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Arthritis: Inflammation of a joint. When joints are inflamed they can develop stiffness, w...

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Ataxia: Poor coordination and unsteadiness due to the brain's failure to regulate the body...

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Autoimmune: Pertaining to autoimmunity, a misdirected immune response that occurs when the...

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Autonomic neuropathy: Disease of the nerves affecting mostly the internal organs such as t...

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Benign: Not malignant. A benign tumor is one that does not invade surrounding tissue or sp...

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Biofeedback: A method of treatment that uses a monitor to measure patients' physiologic in...

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Biopsy: The removal of a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope to check for ...

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Bladder: A hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine. The kidneys filter waste f...

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Blood glucose: The main sugar that the body makes from the food in the diet. Glucose is ca...

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Blood pressure: The blood pressure is the pressure of the blood within the arteries. It is...

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Blood sugar: Blood glucose. See also: High blood sugar; Low blood sugar.

Blurred vision: Lack of sharpness of vision with, as a result, the inability to see fine d...

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Bowel: The small and large intestine.

Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Capsaicin: Capsaicin is an active component of chili peppers that is used to relieve muscl...

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Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: A genetic disease of nerves that is characterized by progress...

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Circulation: In medicine, the movement of fluid through the body in a regular or circuitou...

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Clinical trials: Trials to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of medications or medical...

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Complication: In medicine, an unanticipated problem that arises following, and is a result...

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Compression: 1. The act of pressing together. As in a compression fracture, nerve c...

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Constipation: Infrequent and frequently incomplete bowel movements. Constipation is the op...

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Cranial: 1. Pertaining to the cranium or skull. 2. Toward the head. As oppo...

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Cranial nerves: The nerves of the brain, which emerge from or enter the skull (the cranium...

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Cuts: Severed skin. Washing a cut or scrape with soap and water and keeping it clean and d...

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Cymbalta: Brand name for duloxetine hydrochloride, a drug approved by the FDA to treat maj...

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Diabetes: Usually refers to diabetes mellitus or, less often, to diabetes insipidus. Diabe...

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Diabetic neuropathy: Nerve damage caused by diabetes that leads to numbness and sometimes ...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Diarrhea: A common condition that involves unusually frequent and liquid bowel movements. ...

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Dizziness: Painless head discomfort with many possible causes including disturbances of ...

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Duloxetine: See: Cymbalta.

Dysfunction: Difficult function or abnormal function.

Ear: The hearing organ. There are three sections of the ear, according to the anatomy tex...

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Erectile dysfunction: A consistent inability to sustain an erection sufficient for sexual ...

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FDA: Food and Drug Administration.

Focal: Pertaining to a focus which in medicine may refer to:
1. The point at ...

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Folate: Folic acid, one of the B vitamins that is a key factor in the synthesis (the makin...

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Food and Drug Administration: An agency within the US Public Health Service that provides ...

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Genetic: Having to do with genes and genetic
information.

Glucose: The simple sugar that is the chief source of energy. Glucose is found in the bloo...

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Guillain-Barré syndrome: A disorder characterized by progressive symmetrical paraly...

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Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Hypoglycemia: Low blood sugar (glucose). Hypoglycemia may be associated with symptoms such...

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Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to treat pa...

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Idiopathic: Of unknown cause. Any disease that is of uncertain or unknown origin may be te...

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Impotence: A common problem among men characterized by the consistent inability to sustai...

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Incontinence: The inability to control excretions, to hold urine in the bladder, or to kee...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Injury: Harm or hurt. To harm, hurt, or wound. The word injure may be in physical or emot...

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Inner ear: A highly complex structure whose essential component for hearing is the membran...

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Involuntary: Done other than in accordance with the conscious will of the individual. The ...

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Ischemia: Inadequate blood supply to a local area due to blockage of blood vessels leading...

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Joint: The area where two bones are attached for the purpose of permitting body parts to m...

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Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Leprosy: An infectious disease of the skin, nervous system, and mucous membranes that is c...

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Lipids: Another word for "fats." (Please see the various meanings of Fat.) Lipids can be m...

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Low blood sugar: A low blood level of the sugar glucose. Also called hypoglycemia.

Lupus: A chronic inflammatory disease that is caused by autoimmunity. Patients with lupus ...

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Lyme disease: An inflammatory disease that is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi...

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Malignant: 1. Tending to be severe and become progressively worse, as in malignant ...

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Medical history: 1. In clinical medicine, the patient's past and present which may ...

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Microscope: An optical instrument that augments the power of the eye to see small objects....

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Motor: Something that produces or refers to motion. For example, a motor neuron is a nerve...

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MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging.

Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Nausea: Stomach queasiness, the urge to vomit. Nausea can be brought on by many causes, in...

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Nerve: A bundle of fibers that uses electrical and chemical signals to transmit sensory an...

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Nerve conduction velocity test: An electrical test used to detect nerve conditions. In the...

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Neuralgia: Pain along the course of a nerve.

Neurological: Having to do with the nerves or the nervous system as, for example, a neurol...

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Neurology: The medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders o...

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Neuropathy: Any disease or malfunction of the nerves.

Nutrition: 1: The process of taking in food and using it for growth, metabolism, and repai...

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Onset: In medicine, the first appearance of the signs or symptoms of an illness as, for ex...

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Optic: Having to do with vision.

Optic nerve: The optic nerve connects the eye to the brain. The optic nerve carries the...

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Organ: A relatively independent part of the body that carries out one or more special func...

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Overweight: The term "overweight" is used in two different ways. In one sense it is a way ...

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Oxycodone: Oxycodone is the active ingredient in OxyContin. Oxycodone is an opioid, a clos...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Palpitations: Unpleasant sensations of irregular and/or forceful beating of the heart. In ...

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Paresthesia: An abnormal sensation of the body, such as numbness, tingling, or burning.

Pathologist: A physician who identifies diseases and conditions by studying abnormal cells...

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Peripheral: Situated away from the center, as opposed to centrally located.

Peripheral nervous system: The portion of the nervous system that is outside the brain and...

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Peripheral neuropathy: A problem with the functioning of the nerves outside the spinal cor...

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Perspiration: 1) The secretion of fluid by the sweat (sudoriferous) glands. These small, ...

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Physical therapy: A branch of rehabilitative health that uses specially designed exercises...

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Prescription: A physician's order for the preparation and administration of a drug or dev...

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Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan...

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Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Proximal: Toward the beginning, the nearer of two (or more) items. For example, the proxim...

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Radial: A word with diverse meanings in medicine and the biomedical sciences:

  1. Pe...

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Retina: The retina is the nerve layer that lines the back of the eye, senses light, and cr...

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Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of joint...

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Sensation: In medicine and physiology, sensation refers to the registration of an incoming...

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Sensitivity: 1. In psychology, the quality of being sensitive. As, for example, sen...

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Sensory: Relating to sensation, to the perception of a stimulus, to the voyage made by inc...

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Shingles: An acute infection caused by the herpes zoster virus, the same virus as causes c...

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Spinal cord: The major column of nerve tissue that is connected to the brain and lies with...

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Superficial: In anatomy, on the surface or shallow. As opposed to deep. The skin is superf...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Sweat: A colorless transparent acidic fluid with a distinctive odor secreted by the small ...

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Sweating: The act of secreting fluid from the skin by the sweat (sudoriferous) glands. The...

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Symptom: Any subjective evidence of disease. In contrast, a sign is objective. Blood comin...

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Syndrome: A combination of symptoms and signs that together represent a disease process.

Syphilis: A sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum, a microscopic orga...

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Systemic: Affecting the entire body. A systemic disease such as diabetes can affect the wh...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Topical: Pertaining to a particular surface area. For example, a topical agent is applied ...

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Trauma: A physical or emotional injury.

Tricyclic antidepressants: One of a class of medications used to treat depression. The tri...

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Tylenol: See: Acetaminophen.

Uremia: The presence of excessive amounts of urea¬ in the blood, which may be a sign of ki...

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Urinary: Having to do with the function or anatomy of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or ur...

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Virus: A microorganism that is smaller than a bacterium that cannot grow or reproduce apar...

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Vitamins: The word "vitamin" was coined in 1911 by the Warsaw-born biochemist Casimir Funk...

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Wrist: The part of the hand that is nearest the forearm and consists of the carpal bones a...

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