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Norovirus (cont.)

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Unfortunately, there is no vaccine for norovirus, although at least one company has a vaccine preparation undergoing clinical trials. This may help in the future to prevent many of the 3 million to 5 million deaths per year worldwide due to diarrhea. Since many underdeveloped countries have no commercially made electrolyte solutions available (both oral and IV), the WHO recommends the following for fluid rehydration, especially for children because they have a smaller fluid and electrolyte reserve than adults: Mix 2 tablespoons of sugar with ¼ teaspoon of table salt with ¼ teaspoon of baking soda in 1 liter of clean (treated or boiled) water. Other investigators suggest adding about ½ cup of clear (no pulp) fruit juice to this solution to provide added potassium. In 2006, the WHO recommended a new oral rehydration salts (ORS) formula that can be prepackaged, shipped to underdeveloped countries, and simply poured into clean water. The WHO hopes ORS will lead to a two-third reduction in childhood deaths in underdeveloped countries due to diarrhea by 2015.

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