Betty is a Registered Dietitian who earned her B.S. degree in Food and Nutrition from Marymount College of Fordham University and her M.S. degree in Clinical Nutrition from New York University. She is the Co-Director and Director of nutrition for the New York Obesity Research Center Weight Loss Program.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Minerals are another component in a healthy diet. There are two categories of
minerals: major minerals and trace minerals. The difference between each of
these is the amount that is needed each day. The major minerals are calcium,
phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfur. The trace
minerals are iodine, iron, zinc, selenium, fluoride, chromium, and copper.
The primary functions and sources of the major minerals are
primary mineral in bones and teeth is also needed for normal muscle
contraction and relaxation, nerve functioning, and blood clotting. The dietary
sources are milk and milk products, oysters, small fish, tofu, greens, and
Phosphorus: This mineral makes up about 1% of your body weight. It is
needed for bone and tooth strength, and it plays an important role in the body's
utilization of carbohydrates and fats and in the synthesis of protein and in the
maintenance and repair of cells and tissues. The dietary sources are dairy
products and meat.
Magnesium: This is required for nerve and heart function,
bone strength, and to maintain a healthy immune system. The dietary sources are
halibut, nuts, spinach, cereal, oatmeal, potato, peanut butter, and yogurt.
Sodium: This is critical for nerve impulse transmission and helps to maintain
cells' normal fluid balance. The guidelines for sodium consumption are to
consume less than 2,300 mg (approximately 1 tsp of salt) of sodium per day and
to choose and prepare foods with little salt. At the same time, consume
potassium-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables.
Potassium: This is
essential for the body's growth and maintenance and the contraction of muscles.
It's also necessary to maintain a normal fluid balance between the cells and
body fluids. Dietary sources are potato with the skin, prunes, raisins, lima
beans, orange juice, tomato juice, acorn squash, bananas, spinach, and sunflower
Chloride: Chloride is a part of the hydrochloric acid in the stomach
that is necessary for proper digestion. The dietary sources are salt and
Sulfur: This is the only mineral that aids in drug
detoxification. The dietary sources are all protein-containing foods.
The primary functions and sources of the trace minerals are
mineral is a component of thyroid hormones. The dietary sources are iodized
salt, seafood, and dairy products.
Iron: Iron deficiency is considered the
number-one nutritional disorder in the world. It is needed to make hemoglobin,
which is used to carry oxygen in the blood. When oxygen can't get to the cells,
the symptoms will be fatigue, poor work performance, and decreased immunity. The
dietary sources are liver, oysters, beef, turkey, chicken, and tuna.
This mineral is involved in normal growth and development, it's needed for a
healthy immune system, it helps maintain your sense of taste and smell, and it
is needed for wound healing. The dietary sources are seafood, meat, poultry, and
Fluoride: Pick up your toothpaste and you will see that it
contains fluoride. The reason for this is because it increases resistance of
tooth enamel to dental caries. Water is also fluoridated for this reason.
Chromium: This mineral enhances the action of insulin. It also appears to be
involved in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism. Dietary sources are meat,
unrefined grains, broccoli, garlic, and basil.
Copper: Copper aids in forming
hemoglobin, which is needed to carry oxygen to the cells. It is also involved in
protein metabolism and hormone synthesis. The dietary sources are liver, cocoa,
beans, nuts, whole grains, and dried fruits.
I want to conclude with a very important point. The goal isn't to go for
"perfection" with your diet. The goal is to make some changes to what you are
currently doing and continue to add and remove things as you go. There are not
"good" and "bad" foods. Each food can fit into your diet, but the frequency and
quantity may need to be altered. Think of foods as "everyday" foods and
"sometimes" foods, and go for lots of color and a balance of foods from each of
the food groups. Bon appétit.