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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (cont.)

Synonyms and Keywords

obsessive compulsive disorder, obsessions, compulsions, rituals, rigid rules, postpartum, perfectionism, obsessive compulsive personality disorder, trichotillomania, compulsive gambling, eating disorders, dissociation, social phobia, schizotypal personality disorder, autism spectrum disorders, infections, genetic vulnerability, cognitive behavioral therapy, response prevention, exposure therapy, serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, computer-guided treatment, mindfulness therapies, triggers, support groups.

Author and Editor

Author: Roxanne Dryden-Edwards, MD

Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, Chief Medical Editor,


Abramowitz, J., Moore, K., Carmin, C., Wiegartz, P.S., and Purdon, C. Acute onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder in males following childbirth. Psychosomatics 2001 Oct; 42: 429-431.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Treatment Revision 2000, Washington, D.C.

Baldwin, D.S., Brandish, E.K., and Meron, D. The overlap of obsessive-compulsive disorder and social phobia and its treatment. CNS Spectrums 2008 Sep; 13(9 Suppl 14): 47-53.

Bandelow, B. The medical treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety. CNS Spectrums 2008 Sep; 13(9 Suppl 14): 37-46.

Bandelow, B., Zohar, J., Hollander, E., Kasper, S., Moller, H.J., et al. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety, obsessive-compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders-first revision. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 2008; 9(4): 248-312.

Barrett, P.M., Farrell, L., Pina, A.A., Peris, T.S., and Piacentini, J. Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 2008 Jan; 37(1): 131-155.

Bejerot, S. An autistic dimension: A proposed subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Autism 2007; 11(2): 101-110.

Bloch, M.H., Landeros-Weisenberger, A., Kelmendi, B., et al. A systematic review: antipsychotic augmentation with treatment refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Molecular Psychiatry 2006; 11: 622-632.

Brandes, M., Soares, C.N., and Cohen, L.S. Postpartum obsessive-compulsive disorder: diagnosis and management. Archives of Women's Mental Health 2004 April; 7(2): 99-110.

Christenson, G.A. and Crow, S.J. The characterization and treatment of trichotillomania. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1996; 57(Suppl 8): 42-49.

Disabled Famous people with obsessive compulsive disorder January 25, 2008

Durdle, H., Gorey, K.M. and Stewart, S.H. A meta-analysis examining the relations among pathological gambling, obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive-compulsive traits. Psychological Reports 2008 Oct; 103(2): 485-498.

Fireman, B., Koran, L.M., Leventhal, J.L., and Jacobson, A. The prevalence of clinically recognized obsessive-compulsive disorder in a large health maintenance organization. American Journal of Psychiatry 2001 Nov; 158: 1904-1910.

Fisher, P.L. and Wells, A. How effective are cognitive and behavioral treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder? A clinical significance analysis. Behavior Research Therapy 2005 December; 43(12): 1543-1558.

Frederick, C. Hypnotically facilitated treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: can it be evidence-based? International Journal of Clinical Experimental Hypnosis 2007 Apr; 55(2): 189-206.

Godart, N., Berthoz, S., Perdereau, F., and Jeammet, P. Letter to the editor: Comorbidity of anxiety with eating disorders and OCD. American Journal of Psychiatry 2006 Feb; 163: 326.

Goldsmith, T.D., Shapira, N.A., and Keck, P.E. Letter to the editor: Dr. Goldsmith and colleagues reply. American Journal of Psychiatry 2000 May; 157: 839.

Grabe, H.J., Ruhrmann, S., Ettelt, S., Buhtz, F., Hochrein, A., Schulze-Rauschenbach, S., et al. Familiality of obsessive-compulsive disorder in nonclinical and clinical subjects. American Journal of Psychiatry 2006 Nov; 163: 1986-1992.

Greist, J.H., Marks, I.M., Baer, L., Kobak, K.A., Wenzel, K.W., Hirsch, M.J., Mantle, J.M., and Clary, C.M. Behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder guided by a computer or by a clinician compared with relaxation as a control. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2002 Feb; 63(2): 138-145.

Hanstede, M., Gidron, Y., and Nykliek, I. The effects of a mindfulness intervention on obsessive-compulsive symptoms in a non-clinical student population. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders 2008 Oct; 196(10): 776-779.

Helbing, M.L.C. and Ficca, M. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in school-age children. The Journal of School Nursing 2009; 25(1): 15-26.

Jaurrieta, N., Jimenez-Murcia, S., Menchon, J.M., Del Pino Alonso, M., Segalas, C., Alvarez-Moya, E.M., Labad, J., Granero, R., and Vallejo, J. Individual versus group cognitive-behavioral treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a controlled pilot study. Psychotherapy Research 2008 Sep; 18(5); 604-614.

Kaplan, A., and Hollander, E. A review of pharmacologic treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatric Services 2003 Aug; 54: 1111-1118.

Khan, M.N., Hotiana, U.A., and Ahmad, S. "Escitalopram in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a double blind placebo control trial." Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad 2007 Oct-Dec; 19(4): 58-63.

Kordon, A., Wahl, K., Koch, N., Zurowski, B., Anlauf, M., Vielhaber, K., Kahl, K.G., Brooks, A., Voderholzer, U., and Hohagen, F. Quetiapine addition to serotonin reuptake inhibitors in patients with severe obsessive-compulsive disorder: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 2008 Oct; 28(5): 550-554.

Krishnan, K.R.R. Psychiatric and medical comorbidities of bipolar disorder. Psychosomatic Medicine 2005; 67: 1-8.

Lochnera, C., Seedata, S., Hemmings, S.M.J., Kinnear, C.J., Corfield, V.A., Niehausa, D.J.H., Moolman-Smook, J.C., and Steina, D.J. Dissociative experiences in obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania: Clinical and genetic findings. Comprehensive Psychiatry 2004 Sep; 45(5): 384-391.

Maia, T.V., Cooney, R.E., and Peterson, B.S. The neural bases of obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adults. Developmental Psychopathology 2008 Fall; 20(4): 1251-1283.

Mancebo, M.C., Eisen, J.L., Grant, J.E., and Rasmussen, S.A. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder: clinical characteristics, diagnostic difficulties, and treatment. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry 2005 Oct-Dec; 17(4): 197-204.

Merlo, L.J., and E.A. Storch. "Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Tools for recognizing its many expressions." Journal of Family Practice 55.3 Mar. 2006.

Mohammadi, M.R., Ghanizadeh, A., Rahgozar, M., Noorbala, A.A., et al. Prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in Iran. British Medical College of Psychiatry 2004 Feb 14(4): 2. Obsessive compulsive disorder information 2006-2009.

PELissier, M.C. Cognitive-behavioral treatment of trichotillomania, targeting perfectionism. Clinical Case Studies 2004; 3(1): 57-69.

Russell, A.J., Mataix-Cols, D., Anson, M., and Murphy, D.G. Obsessions and compulsions in Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism. The British Journal of Psychiatry 2005; 186: 525-528.

Starcevic, V. and Brakoulias, V. Symptom subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder: are they relevant for treatment? Australia New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2008 Aug; 42(8): 651-661.

Storch, E.A., L.J. Merlo, M.L. Keeley, et al. "Somatic symptoms in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: associations with clinical characteristics and cognitive-behavioral therapy response." Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 36 (2008): 283-297.

Tenneij, N.H., van Megen, H.J., Denys, D.A., and Westenberg, H.G. Behavior therapy augments response of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder responding to drug treatment. Evidence Based Mental Health 2006; May; 9(2): 53.

Torres, A.R. and Lima, M.C. Epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review. Rev Bras Psiquiatr (Portuguese) 2005 Sep; 27(3): 237-242.

Uguz, F., Akman, C., Kaya, N., and Cilli, A.S. Postpartum-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder: incidence, clinical features and related factors. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2007 Jan; 68(1): 132-138.

Winter, J.M. and Scheibman, L. An examination of repetitive behaviors in autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder: brain and behavioral similarities. Presentation at the International Meeting for Autism Research 2002; Orlando, Florida.

Last Editorial Review: 10/2/2012

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