Osteoarthritis Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Osteoarthritis article.

Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Acetaminophen: A nonaspirin pain reliever or analgesic. Acetaminophen may be given alone t...

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Acromegaly: Condition due to the production of too much growth hormone by the pituitary gl...

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Acute: Of abrupt onset, in reference to a disease. Acute often also connotes an illness th...

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Aerobic: Oxygen-requiring. Aerobic bacteria need oxygen to grow. Aerobic exercise requires...

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Analysis: In psychology, a term for conversation-based therapeutic processes used to gain ...

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Anatomy: The study of human or animal form, by observation or examination of the living be...

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Ankle: The ankle joint is complex. It is made up of two joints: the true ankle joint and ...

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Ankle joint: A joint that is composed of three bones: the tibia, the fibula, and the talus...

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Antibiotic: A drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms. ...

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Antidepressant: Anything, and especially a drug, used to prevent or treat depression.

Antioxidant: A substance that reduces damage due to oxygen, such as that caused by free ra...

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Arms: An appendage in anatomy and in clinical trials. See: Arm.

Arthritis: Inflammation of a joint. When joints are inflamed they can develop stiffness, w...

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Arthroscopy: A surgical technique in which a tube-like instrument is inserted into a joint...

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Aspirin: Once the Bayer trademark for acetylsalicylic acid, now the common name for this a...

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Back pain: Pain felt in the low or upper back. Causes of pain in the low and upper back in...

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Blood sugar: Blood glucose. See also: High blood sugar; Low blood sugar.

Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Calcium: A mineral found mainly in the hard part of bones, where it is stored. Calcium is ...

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Capsule: Capsule has many meanings in medicine including the following:

  1. In medici...

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Cartilage: Firm, rubbery tissue that cushions bones at joints. A flexible kind of cartilag...

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Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Collagen: The principal protein of the skin, tendons, cartilage, bone, and connective tiss...

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Congenital: A condition that is present at birth, whether or not it is inherited.

Connective tissue: A material made up of fibers forming a framework and support structure...

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Cox-2: Cyclooxygenase-2, an enzyme that acts to speed up the production of certain chemica...

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CT scan: Computerized tomography scan. Pictures of structures within the body created by a...

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Cymbalta: Brand name for duloxetine hydrochloride, a drug approved by the FDA to treat maj...

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Cyst: A closed sac or capsule, usually filled with fluid or semisolid material.

Cysts: Cysts are abnormal, closed sac-like structures within a tissue that contain a liqui...

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Degenerative joint disease: Also known as osteoarthritis, this type of arthritis is cause...

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Diabetes: Refers to diabetes mellitus or, less often, to diabetes insipidus. Diabetes mell...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Disc: Shortened terminology for an intervertebral disc, a disk-shaped piece of specialized...

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Duloxetine: See: Cymbalta.

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: A heritable disorder of connective tissue that is characterized by...

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ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a rapid immunochemical test that involves an enz...

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Endocrine: Pertaining to hormones and the glands that make and secrete them into the blood...

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Endoscope: A lighted optical instrument that is used to get a deep look inside the body. A...

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FDA: Food and Drug Administration.

Fever: Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 degr...

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Food and Drug Administration: An agency within the US Public Health Service that provides ...

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Gastrointestinal: Adjective referring collectively to the stomach and small and large inte...

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Genetic: Having to do with genes and genetic
information.

Glucosamine: A molecule derived from the sugar glucose by the addition of an amino group. ...

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Gout: Condition characterized by abnormally elevated levels of uric acid in the blood, rec...

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Gouty arthritis: An attack that is usually extremely painful of joint inflammation due to ...

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Hemophilia: An inherited disorder in which the ability of blood to clot normally is impair...

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Hyperparathyroidism: Too much parathyroid hormone resulting in abnormally high levels of ...

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Hypertrophic: Exhibiting hypertrophy (enlargement or overgrowth of an organ or part of the...

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Hypothyroid: Deficiency of thyroid hormone which is normally made by the thyroid gland wh...

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Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to treat pa...

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Incidence: The frequency with which something, such as a disease or trait, appears in a pa...

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Incision: A cut through skin or other tissue performed by a health care professional.

Indicate: In medicine, to make a treatment or procedure advisable because of a particular ...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Inflammation: A localized reaction that produces redness, warmth, swelling, and pain as a ...

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Injury: Harm or hurt. To harm, hurt, or wound. The word injure may be in physical or emot...

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Joint: The area where two bones are attached for the purpose of permitting body parts to m...

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Knee: The knee is a joint which has three parts. The thigh bone (the femur) meets the lar...

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Knee joint: The knee joint has three parts. The thigh bone (the femur) meets the large sh...

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Leg: In popular usage, the part of the body from the top of the thigh down to the foot, an...

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Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Liver disease: Liver disease refers to any disorder of the liver. The liver is a large org...

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Low back pain: Pain in the lower back area that can relate to problems with the lumbar spi...

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Marker: A piece of DNA that lies on a chromosome so close to a gene that the marker and t...

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Membrane: A very thin layer of tissue that covers a 'surface.

Metabolic: Relating to metabolism, the whole range of biochemical processes that occur wit...

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Metabolism: The whole range of biochemical processes that occur within a living organism. ...

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MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging.

Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Neck: The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constric...

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Nerve: A bundle of fibers that uses electrical and chemical signals to transmit sensory an...

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Nerve growth factor: A naturally occurring substance that enhances the growth and survival...

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Nutrition: 1) The science or practice of taking in and utilizing foods. 2) A nourishing ...

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Obesity: The state of being well above one's normal weight.

Osteoarthritis: A type of arthritis caused by inflammation, breakdown, and eventual loss ...

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Osteotomy: Taking out part or all of a bone, or cutting into or through bone.

Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Pain management: The process of providing medical care that alleviates or reduces pain. Mi...

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Pediatric: Pertaining to children.

Pharmacy: A location where prescription medications are sold. A pharmacy is constantly sup...

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Prescription: A physician's order for the preparation and administration of a drug or dev...

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Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan...

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Progressive: Increasing in scope or severity, advancing, or going forward. For example, a ...

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Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Range of motion: The full movement potential of a joint, usually its range of flexion and ...

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Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of joint...

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Scan: As a noun, the data or image obtained from the examination of organs or regions of...

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Sensation: In medicine and physiology, sensation refers to the registration of an incoming...

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Spine: 1) The column of bone known as the vertebral column, which surrounds and protects ...

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Spondylosis: Degeneration of the disc spaces between the vertebrae. Spondylosis is common ...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Syndrome: A combination of symptoms and signs that together represent a disease process.

Syringe: A medical device that is used to inject fluid into, or withdraw fluid from, the b...

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Tendon: The soft tissue by which muscle attaches to bone. Tendons are somewhat flexible, b...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Total hip replacement: Surgery in which the diseased ball and socket of the hip joint are ...

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Trauma: A physical or emotional injury.

Tylenol: See: Acetaminophen.

Ultrasound: High-frequency sound waves. Ultra-sound waves can be bounced off tissues by us...

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Vitamin D: A steroid vitamin which promotes the intestinal absorption and metabolism of ca...

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Vitamins: The word "vitamin" was coined in 1911 by the Warsaw-born biochemist Casimir Funk...

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Weight loss: Weight loss is a decrease in body weight resulting from either voluntary (die...

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Wilson disease: An inherited disorder of copper metabolism that results in an abnormal acc...

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Medical Dictionary