Osteoporosis and Calcium Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Osteoporosis and Calcium article.

Absorb: 1. To take something in, as through the skin or the intestine.
2....

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Absorption: Uptake. For example, intestinal absorption is the uptake of food (or other sub...

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Alcoholism: Physical dependence on alcohol to the extent that stopping alcohol use would b...

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Bone density: Bone density is the amount of bone tissue in a certain volume of bone. It ca...

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Caffeine: A stimulant compound found naturally in coffee, tea, cocoa (chocolate), and kola...

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Calcium: A mineral found mainly in the hard part of bones, where it is stored. Calcium is ...

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: The US agency charged with tracking and invest...

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Collagen: The principal protein of the skin, tendons, cartilage, bone, and connective tiss...

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Corticosteroid: Any of the steroid hormones made by the outer portion (cortex) of the adre...

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Enzyme: A protein (or protein-based molecule) that speeds up a chemical reaction in a livi...

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Enzymes: Proteins that act as a catalysts in mediating and speeding a specific chemical re...

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Essential: In medicine, of unknown cause, as in essential hypertension (high blood pressur...

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Estrogen: A female steroid hormone that is produced by the ovaries and, in lesser amounts,...

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Extracellular: Outside a cell. As opposed to intracellular, meaning within a cell.

Fecal: Relating to the feces, the stool. The excrement discharged from the intestines.

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Feces: The excrement discharged from the 'intestines.

Fiber: The parts of fruits and vegetables that cannot be digested. Fiber is of vital impor...

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Fracture: A break in bone or cartilage. Although usually a result of trauma, a fracture ca...

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Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Hormone: A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activit...

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Informatics: The application of computers and statistics to the management of information....

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Internal medicine: The medical specialty dedicated to the diagnosis and medical treatment ...

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Intracellular: Within a cell. In contrast to extracellular, meaning outside a cell.

Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Lactase: Enzyme that breaks down the milk sugar lactose into glucose and galactose. Perso...

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Lactose: The sugar found in milk. Lactose is a large sugar molecule that is made up of two...

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Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Magnesium: A mineral involved in many processes in the body including nerve signaling, the...

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Milligram: A unit of measurement of mass in the metric system equal to a thousandth of a g...

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NIH: National Institutes of Health.

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Osteoporosis: Thinning of the bones, with reduction in bone mass, due to depletion of calc...

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Ounce: A measure of weight equal to 1/16th of a pound or, metrically, 28.35 gra...

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Pharmacist: A professional who fills prescriptions and, in the case of a compounding pharm...

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Pharmacy: A location where prescription medications are sold. A pharmacy is constantly sup...

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Phosphate: A form of phosphoric acid. Calcium phosphate makes bones and teeth hard.

Prescription: A physician's order for the preparation and administration of a drug or dev...

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Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Proteins: Large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific orde...

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Resorb: To absorb again, to lose substance. For example, some of a tooth may be resorbed.

Resorption: The process of losing substance. For example, when bone is surgically reshaped...

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Rheumatology: A subspecialty of internal medicine that involves the nonsurgical evaluation...

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Serving size: 1. The portion of food used as a reference on the nutrition label of ...

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Sodium: The major positive ion (cation) in the fluid surrounding cells in the body. The ch...

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Spine: 1) The column of bone known as the vertebral column, which surrounds and protects ...

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Stomach: The digestive organ that is located in the upper abdomen, under the ribs. The upp...

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Stress: In a medical or biological context stress is a physical, mental, or emotional fact...

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Sweat: A colorless transparent acidic fluid with a distinctive odor secreted by the small ...

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Tablespoon: An old-fashioned but convenient household measure of capacity that is equal to...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Urinary: Having to do with the function or anatomy of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or ur...

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Urine: Liquid waste produced by the kidneys. Urine is a clear, transparent fluid that norm...

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Vitamin C: An essential nutrient found mainly in fruits and vegetables. The body requires ...

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Vitamin D: A steroid vitamin which promotes the intestinal absorption and metabolism of ca...

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Vitamin E: Alpha-tocopherol, an antioxidant vitamin which binds oxygen free radicals that ...

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Vitamin K: One of two naturally occurring fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin K1 and vitamin K2)...

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Warfarin: An anticoagulant drug (brand names: Coumarin, Panwarfin, Sofarin) taken to prev...

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Yogurt: A common dish made of milk curdled and fermented with a culture of Lactobacillus (...

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Medical Dictionary