Overactive Bladder Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Overactive Bladder article.

Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Agonist: A substance that acts like another substance and therefore stimulates an action. ...

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Anticholinergic: Opposing the actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Anticholinerg...

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Antidepressant: Anything, and especially a drug, used to prevent or treat depression.

Benign: Not malignant. A benign tumor is one that does not invade surrounding tissue or sp...

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Biofeedback: A method of treatment that uses a monitor to measure patients' physiologic in...

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Bladder: A hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine. The kidneys filter waste f...

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Bladder cancer: A common form of cancer that begins in the lining of the bladder. The most...

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Botox: A highly purified preparation of botulinum toxin A, a toxin produced by the bacteri...

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Caffeine: A stimulant compound found naturally in coffee, tea, cocoa (chocolate), and kola...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Catheter: A thin, flexible tube.

Connective tissue: A material made up of fibers forming a framework and support structure...

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Constipation: Infrequent and frequently incomplete bowel movements. Constipation is the op...

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Contraction: The tightening and shortening of a muscle.

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Cymbalta: Brand name for duloxetine hydrochloride, a drug approved by the FDA to treat maj...

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Cystitis: Inflammation of the bladder. Cystitis can be due for example to infection from ...

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Cytology: The medical and scientific study of cells. Cytology refers to a branch of pathol...

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Dementia: Significant loss of intellectual abilities, such as memory capacity, that is sev...

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Depression: An illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and that affects the way...

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Diabetes: Usually refers to diabetes mellitus or, less often, to diabetes insipidus. Diabe...

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Diabetic neuropathy: Nerve damage caused by diabetes that leads to numbness and sometimes ...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Dry mouth: The condition of not having enough saliva to keep the mouth wet. This is due to...

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Duloxetine: See: Cymbalta.

Dysfunction: Difficult function or abnormal function.

Estrogen: A female steroid hormone that is produced by the ovaries and, in lesser amounts,...

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FDA: Food and Drug Administration.

Food and Drug Administration: An agency within the US Public Health Service that provides ...

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Herbal: 1. An adjective, referring to herbs, as in an herbal tea.
2. A...

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Homeopathic: Pertaining to homeopathy.

Hygiene: The science of preventive medicine and the preservation of health. Also commonly ...

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Idiopathic: Of unknown cause. Any disease that is of uncertain or unknown origin may be te...

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Incontinence: The inability to control excretions, to hold urine in the bladder, or to kee...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Injury: Harm or hurt. To harm, hurt, or wound. The word injure may be in physical or emot...

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Insertion: A chromosome abnormality that is due to insertion of a segment from one chromos...

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Interstitial: Pertaining to being between things, especially between things that are norma...

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Involuntary: Done other than in accordance with the conscious will of the individual. The ...

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Kegel exercises: Exercises designed to increase muscle strength and elasticity in the fema...

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Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Medical history: 1. In clinical medicine, the patient's past and present which may ...

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Metabolic: Relating to metabolism, the whole range of biochemical processes that occur wit...

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Micturition: Urination; the act of urinating.

Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

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Multiple sclerosis: A disease that is characterized by loss of myelin (demyelinization). A...

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Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Naturopathic: Pertaining to naturopathy.

Neck: The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constric...

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Nerve: A bundle of fibers that uses electrical and chemical signals to transmit sensory an...

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Neuropathy: Any disease or malfunction of the nerves.

Nocturia: Excessive urinating at night. Nocturia can be normal and more common with aging....

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Obesity: The state of being well above one's normal weight.

Overactive bladder: A sudden involuntary contraction of the muscular wall of the bladder c...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Parkinson's disease: A slowly progressive neurologic disease that is characterized by a fi...

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Pelvic: Having to do with the pelvis, the lower part of the abdomen, located between the h...

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Pelvic exam: An examination of the organs of the female reproductive system.

Pelvic pain: : Pain perceived in the area of the pelvis, the lower part of the abdomen loc...

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Percutaneous: Through the skin. For example, a percutaneous biopsy is a biopsy that is obt...

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Postmenopausal: After menopause, the period of time after a woman has experienced 12 conse...

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Prescription: A physician's order for the preparation and administration of a drug or dev...

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Prevalence: The proportion of individuals in a population having a disease or characterist...

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Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan...

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Prostate: A gland within the male reproductive system that is located just below the blad...

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Quality of life: The patient's ability to enjoy normal life activities. Quality of life is...

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Refractory: Not yielding, or not yielding readily, to treatment.

Residual: Something left behind. With residual disease, the disease has not been eradicate...

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Risk factor: Something that increases a person's chances of developing a disease. For exam...

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Sacral: Referring to the sacrum. For example, sacral agenesis is absence of all or part of...

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Sclerosis: Localized hardening of skin. Sclerosis is generally caused by underlying diseas...

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Spinal cord: The major column of nerve tissue that is connected to the brain and lies with...

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Spinal cord injury: Trauma or damage to the spinal cord, the major column of nerve tissue ...

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Stress: In a medical or biological context stress is a physical, mental, or emotional fact...

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Stroke: The sudden death of brain cells due to lack of oxygen, caused by blockage of blood...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Symptom: Any subjective evidence of disease. In contrast, a sign is objective. Blood comin...

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Syndrome: A combination of symptoms and signs that together represent a disease process.

Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Trigger: Something that either sets off a disease in people who are genetically predispose...

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Ultrasound: High-frequency sound waves. Ultra-sound waves can be bounced off tissues by us...

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Urethra: The tube that leads from the bladder and transports and discharges urine outside ...

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Urinalysis: A test that is done in order to analyze urine. Because toxins and excess fluid...

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Urinary: Having to do with the function or anatomy of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or ur...

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Urinary incontinence: The unintentional loss of urine. Inability to hold urine in the blad...

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Urinary tract: The organs of the body that produce, store, and discharge urine. These orga...

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Urinary tract infection: An infection of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or urethra. Abbrevia...

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Urinary urgency: An immediate unstoppable urge to urinate, due to a sudden involuntary con...

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Urine: Liquid waste produced by the kidneys. Urine is a clear, transparent fluid that norm...

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Urologist: A physician who specializes in diseases of the urinary organs in females and th...

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