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Pain Medications (cont.)

Authors and Editor

Authors: John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP and Standiford Helm, II, MD

Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD


Brooks PM, Day RO. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs--differences and similarities. N Engl J Med. Jun 13 1991;324(24):1716-25. [Medline].

Bukata WR. Analgesia and Analgesics 1999, Parts I-II. Emerg Med Abstr. 1999;23.

Bukata WR. Cox-1-Sparing NSAIDS--Much Ado About Not Much. Emerg Med Abstr. 2000;24. Xanodyne agrees to withdraw propoxyphene from the U.S. market.

Geba GP, Weaver AL, Polis AB, et al. Efficacy of rofecoxib, celecoxib, and acetaminophen in osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized trial. JAMA. Jan 2 2002;287(1):64-71. [Medline].

Griffin MR, Piper JM, Daugherty JR, et al. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and increased risk for peptic ulcer disease in elderly persons. Ann Intern Med. Feb 15 1991;114(4):257-63. [Medline].

Liebelt E, Levick N. Acute pain management, analgesia and anxiolysis in the adult patient. In: Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. 4th ed. 2000.

Moore PA, Crout RJ, Jackson DL, et al. Tramadol hydrochloride: analgesic efficacy compared with codeine, aspirin with codeine, and placebo after dental extraction. J Clin Pharmacol. Jun 1998;38(6):554-60. [Medline].

Mukherjee D, Nissen SE, Topol EJ. Risk of cardiovascular events associated with selective COX-2 inhibitors. JAMA. Aug 22-29 2001;286(8):954-9. [Medline].

Stubhaug A, Grimstad J, Breivik H. Lack of analgesic effect of 50 and 100 mg oral tramadol after orthopaedic surgery:a randomized, double-blind, placebo and standard active drug comparison. Pain. Jul 1995;62(1):111-8. [Medline].

Turturro MA, Paris PM, Larkin GL. Tramadol versus hydrocodone-acetaminophen in acute musculoskeletal pain: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Ann Emerg Med. Aug 1998;32(2):139-43. [Medline].

Turturro MA, Paris PM, Yealy DM, Menegazzi JJ. Hydrocodone versus codeine in acute musculoskeletal pain. Ann Emerg Med. Oct 1991;20(10):1100-3. [Medline].

Previous contributing authors and editors: Author: John A Michael, MD, FRCPC, FAAEM, Consulting Staff, Department of Emergency Medicine, Northshore Medical Center. Editors: Scott H Plantz, MD, FAAEM, Research Director, Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD, Senior Pharmacy Editor, eMedicine; James Quinn, MD, Director of Research Department of Medicine, Division of Emergency Medicine University of California at San Francisco Medical Center.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 5/7/2013

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