Pancoast Tumor Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Pancoast Tumor article.

Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Adenocarcinoma: A cancer that develops in the lining or inner surface of an organ and usua...

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Adenopathy: Large or swollen lymph nodes. Lymph nodes can become enlarged as a result of i...

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Adjacent: Lying nearby. Related terms include superjacent, subjacent, and circumjacent. Fr...

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Anhidrosis: Lack of sweating. Anhidrosis creates a dangerous inability to tolerate heat.

Apex: The Latin word for summit, the apex is the tip of a pyramidal or rounded structure, ...

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Apical: The adjective for apex, the tip of a pyramidal or rounded structure, such as the l...

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Arteriogram: An X-ray in which an injection of dye shows blood vessels.

Artery: A vessel that carries blood high in oxygen content away from the heart to the far...

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Asbestos: A natural material made up of tiny fibers that is used as thermal insulation. In...

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Atelectasis: Failure of full expansion of the lung at birth, or lung collapse thereafter. ...

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Atrophy: A wasting away or diminution. Muscle atrophy is a decrease in muscle mass, often ...

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Back pain: Pain felt in the low or upper back. Causes of pain in the low and upper back in...

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Biopsy: The removal of a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope to check for ...

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Brachial plexus: A bundle of nerves that begins in the back of the base of the neck and ex...

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Brachytherapy: Radiation treatment given by placing radioactive material directly in or ne...

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Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Bronchoscopy: A procedure that permits the doctor to see the breathing passages through a...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Cancer care: Taking care of cancer. When cancer is suspected, a biopsy is usually performe...

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Carcinoma: Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover body organs. Ex...

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Cardiac: Having to do with the heart.

Cardiopulmonary: Having to do with both the heart and lungs.

Cavities: Holes or structural damage in the two outer layers of a tooth called the enamel...

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Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c...

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Cervical: Having to do with any kind of neck, including the neck on which the head is perc...

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Chemotherapy: 1. In the original sense, a chemical that binds to and specifically k...

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Chest: The area of the body located between the neck and the abdomen. The chest contains t...

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Chest pain: Pain in the chest that can be a result of many things, including angina, heart...

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Chest X-ray: A type of X-ray commonly used to detect abnormalities in the lungs. A chest X...

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Cisplatin: An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called platinum compound...

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Clavicle: The bone extending from the breastbone (sternum) at the base of the front of the...

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Collarbone: A horizontal bone above the first rib that makes up the front part of the shou...

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Compression: 1. The act of pressing together. As in a compression fracture, nerve c...

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Contraction: The tightening and shortening of a muscle.

Contrast: Short for "contrast media." Contrast media are X-ray dyes used to provide contra...

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Cough: A rapid expulsion of air from the lungs, typically in order to clear the lung airwa...

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CT scan: Computerized tomography scan. Pictures of structures within the body created by a...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Elbow: The juncture of the long bones in the middle portion of the upper extremity. The bo...

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Enophthalmos: Sunken eyeball. Enophthalmos can be a sign of severe dehydration.

Epithelium: The outside layer of cells that covers all the free, open surfaces of the body...

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Esophagus: The tube that connects the pharynx (throat) with the stomach. The esophagus lie...

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External radiation therapy: Radiation therapy in which the source of radiation is a machin...

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Fluoroscopy: An x-ray procedure that makes it possible to see internal organs in motion.

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Foramina: The plural of foramen, a natural opening. As in the foramina of Luschka.

Forearm: The portion of the upper limb from the elbow to the wrist. The forearm has two bo...

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Ganglion: The celebrated 2nd century Greek physician Galen ((c. 130-201 A.D.) who lived a...

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Hematology-oncology: The diagnosis, treatment and prevention of blood diseases (hematology...

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Horner syndrome: A condition resulting from interruption of the sympathetic nerve pathways...

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Incision: A cut through skin or other tissue performed by a health care professional.

Incurable: Not amenable to a cure. Incapable of being cured, healed and made well again. ...

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Ipsilateral: On the same side, as opposed to contralateral. For example, a tumor involving...

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Irradiation: The use of high-energy radiation from x-rays, gamma rays, neutrons, and other...

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Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Lung cancer: Cancer of the major organ of respiration - the lung. Lung cancer kills more m...

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Lungs: The lungs are a pair of breathing organs located with the chest which remove carbon...

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Lymph: The almost colorless fluid that travels through the lymphatic system, carrying cell...

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Lymph node: One of many small, bean-shaped organs located throughout the lymphatic system....

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Lymphatics: Small thin channels similar to blood vessels that do not carry blood, but coll...

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Malignant: 1. Tending to be severe and become progressively worse, as in malignant ...

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Median: The middle, as in the median strip in a highway. For example, the median nerve is ...

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Mediastinoscopy: A procedure in which the physician inserts a tube into the chest to view ...

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Mediastinum: The area between the lungs. The organs in the mediastinum include the heart a...

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Medical school: A school with a curriculum leading to a medical degree. The mission of eve...

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Microscope: An optical instrument that augments the power of the eye to see small objects....

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Miosis: Contraction of the pupil. The opposite of miosis is mydriasis.

MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging.

Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Narcotic: 1. A drug that causes insensibility or stupor. A narcotic induces narcosi...

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National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship: A survivor-led advocacy group that works on be...

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Neck: The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constric...

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Neoplasm: A tumor.

Nerve: A bundle of fibers that uses electrical and chemical signals to transmit sensory an...

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Nickel: A silver-white metallic element. Long-term exposure to nickel, such as from jewelr...

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Node: Literally a knot, a node is a collection of tissue. For example a lymph node, is a ...

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Oncology: The field of medicine that is devoted to cancer. Clinical oncology consists of t...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Palliation: To palliate a disease is to treat it partially and insofar as possible, but n...

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Palpable: Something that can be felt. For example, a palpable growth is one that can be de...

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Paralysis: Loss of voluntary movement (motor function). Paralysis that affects only one mu...

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Paraplegia: Paralysis of the lower part of the body, including the legs.

Paresthesia: An abnormal sensation of the body, such as numbness, tingling, or burning.

Parietal: Adjective from the Latin "parietalis" meaning "belonging to the wall" that the a...

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Percutaneous: Through the skin. For example, a percutaneous biopsy is a biopsy that is obt...

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Periphery: 1. The outside or surface of a structure; the portion outside the centr...

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Pharmacy: A location where prescription medications are sold. A pharmacy is constantly sup...

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Plaque: 1. An semi-hardened accumulation of substances from fluids that bathe an a...

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Pleura: One of the two membranes around the lungs. These two membranes are called the visc...

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Pleural: Pertaining to the pleura, the thin covering that protects the lungs. The term "pl...

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Plexus: 1. In medicine, a network or tangle of lymphatic vessels, nerves, or veins....

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Positron emission tomography: PET. A highly specialized imaging technique that uses short-...

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Posterior: The back or behind, as opposed to the anterior.

Preoperative: Before surgery. As opposed to postoperative, after surgery.

Primary tumor: A tumor that is at the original site where it first arose. For example, a p...

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Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan...

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Ptosis: Downward displacement. For example, ptosis of the eyelids is drooping of the eyeli...

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Pulmonary: Having to do with the lungs.

Pupil: The opening of the iris. The pupil may appear to open (dilate) and close (constrict...

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Rad: Radiation absorbed dose, a measurement for a dose of ionizing radiation.

Radiation: 1. Rays of energy. Gamma rays and X-rays are two of the types of energy ...

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Radiation therapy: The use of high-energy rays to damage cancer cells, stopping them from ...

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Radioactive: Emitting energy waves due to decaying atomic nuclei. Radioactive substances a...

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Radiotherapy: The treatment of disease with ionizing radiation. Also called radiation ther...

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Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission. The reappearance ...

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Referral: The recommendation of a medical or paramedical professional. If you get a refer...

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Resection: Surgical removal of part of an organ.

Sagittal: A vertical plane passing through the standing body from front to back. The mid-s...

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Scan: As a noun, the data or image obtained from the examination of organs or regions of...

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Scapula: The shoulder blade (or "wingbone"), the familiar flat triangular bone at the back...

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Second-hand smoke: Environmental tobacco smoke that is inhaled involuntarily or passively ...

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Sensation: In medicine and physiology, sensation refers to the registration of an incoming...

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Shoulder: A structure made up of two main bones: the scapula (shoulder blade) and the hume...

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Shoulder pain: Pain in the shoulder due to an injury or disease. The design of the shoulde...

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Spinal cord: The major column of nerve tissue that is connected to the brain and lies with...

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Spine: 1) The column of bone known as the vertebral column, which surrounds and protects ...

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Spinous process: A slender projection from the back of a vertebra to which muscles and lig...

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Squamous cell carcinoma: Cancer that begins in squamous cells -- thin, flat cells that loo...

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Stage: As regards cancer, the extent of a cancer, especially whether the disease has spre...

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Staging: stagingDoing exams and tests to learn the extent of a cancer, especially whether ...

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Standard of care: 1. A diagnostic and treatment process that a clinician should fol...

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Substance: 1. Material with particular features.
2. The material that...

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Sulcus: A groove, furrow, or trench. The plural is sulci. In anatomy, there are many sulci...

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Surgeon: A physician who treats disease, injury, or deformity via operative or manual meth...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Sweat: A colorless transparent acidic fluid with a distinctive odor secreted by the small ...

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Sweating: The act of secreting fluid from the skin by the sweat (sudoriferous) glands. The...

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Sympathetic nervous system: A part of the nervous system that serves to accelerate the hea...

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Symptom: Any subjective evidence of disease. In contrast, a sign is objective. Blood comin...

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Syndrome: A combination of symptoms and signs that together represent a disease process.

Tension: 1) The pressure within a vessel, such as blood pressure: the pressure within t...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Thoracic: Pertaining to the chest. For example, the thoracic aorta is the part of the aort...

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Tobacco: A South American herb (Nicotiana tabacum) whose leaves contain 2 to 8 percent nic...

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Tomography: The process for generating a tomogram, a two-dimensional image of a slice or s...

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Trachea: A tube-like portion of the respiratory tract that connects the larynx with the br...

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Tumor: An abnormal mass of tissue. Tumors are a classic sign of inflammation, and can be ...

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Ulnar: Pertaining to the ulna, the larger bone in the forearm.

Ulnar nerve: A major nerve in the upper extremity that supplies both sensory and motor inn...

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Vein: A blood vessel that carries blood that is low in oxygen content from the body back t...

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Vena cava: The superior vena cava is the large vein which returns blood to the heart from ...

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Vertebra: A vertebra is one of 33 bony segments that form the spinal column of humans. Th...

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Vertebrae: The preferred plural of vertebra. (The alternate plural is vertebras.) See also...

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Vessel: A tube in the body that carries fluids. Examples of vessels are blood vessels and ...

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Windpipe: The trachea, a tube-like portion of the respiratory (breathing) tract that conn...

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X-ray: High-energy radiation with waves shorter than those of visible light. X-ray is used...

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