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Alcohol abuse and gallstones are the two main causes of pancreatitis, accounting for 80% to 90% of all cases.
Pancreatitis from alcohol use usually occurs in individuals who have been long-term alcohol drinkers for at least five to seven years. Most cases of chronic pancreatitis are due to alcohol abuse. Pancreatitis is often already chronic by the first time the person seeks medical attention (usually for severe pain).
Gallstones form from a buildup of material within the gallbladder, another organ in the abdomen (please see previous illustration). A gallstone can block the pancreatic duct, trapping digestive juices inside the pancreas. Pancreatitis due to gallstones tends to occur most often in women older than 50 years of age.
The remaining 10% to 20% of cases of pancreatitis have various causes, including the following:
In about 15% of cases of acute pancreatitis and 40% of cases of chronic pancreatitis, the cause is never known.
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 11/12/2014
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The pancreas is a gland located in the upper, posterior abdomen and is responsible for insulin production (endocrine pancreas) and the manufacture and secretion of digestive enzymes (exocrine pancreas) leading to carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism.