Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related degenerative disorder of certain brain cells. It mainly affects movements of the body, but other problems, including dementia, may occur. It is not considered a hereditary disease, although a genetic link has been identified in a small number of families.
The most common symptoms of PD are tremor (shaking or trembling) of the hands, arms, jaw, and face; rigidity (stiffness) of the trunk and limbs; slowness of movement; and loss of balance and coordination.
Other symptoms include shuffling, speaking difficulties, (or speaking very softly), facial masking (expressionless, mask-like face), swallowing problems, and stooped posture.
The symptoms worsen gradually over years.
Depression, anxiety, personality and behavior changes, sleep disturbances, and sexual problems are commonly associated with PD. In many cases, PD does not affect a person's ability to think, reason, learn, or remember (cognitive processes).
In some patients with PD, however, one or more cognitive processes are impaired.
If this impairment is severe enough to interfere with the person's ability to carry out everyday activities, it is called dementia. Fortunately, dementia occurs in only about 20% of people with PD. If PD patients experience hallucinations and have severe motor control, they are at higher risk for dementia. The development of dementia is slow. Typically, people that develop symptoms of dementia do so about 10 to 15 years after the initial diagnosis of PD.
About 500,000 people in the United States have PD, and about 50,000 new cases are diagnosed each year. The number of those who have some cognitive symptoms is difficult to pinpoint because accurate data are lacking for the following reasons:
Researchers use various definitions of cognitive impairment and dementia.
PD often overlaps with other degenerative brain disorders that can cause dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease and vascular disease within the brain.
Some researchers suggest that at least 50% of people with PD have some mild cognitive impairment and estimate that as many as 20% to 40% may have more severe symptoms or dementia.
Most patients have the first symptoms of PD after the age of 60 years, but PD also affects younger people. Early-onset PD strikes people around the age of 40 years, or even earlier.
Regardless of age at onset of the disease, dementia symptoms tend to appear later (after about 10 to 15 years) in the course of the disease.
Dementia is relatively rare in people with onset of PD before age 50 years, even when the disease is of long duration.
Dementia is more common in people with an older age at onset of PD.
Must Read Articles Related to Parkinson Disease Dementia
Dementia OverviewDementia is the loss of reasoning, memory, and other mental abilities. Dementia may be caused by irreversible as well as treatable causes. A variety of tests (b...learn more >>
Dementia With Lewy BodiesDementia is a progressive (gradually worsening) decline of mental abilities that disturbs "cognitive" functions such as memory, thought processes, and speech as...learn more >>
Dementia may develop in up to one-third of people who have late-stage Parkinson's disease. Dementia symptoms may include disorientation at night, confusion, and memory loss. Medicines that are used to treat Parkinson's disease can also contribute to this problem. Other medicines used to treat dementia may help.