PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) article.

Amplification: An event that produces multiple copies of a gene or of any sequence of DNA....

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Analysis: In psychology, a term for conversation-based therapeutic processes used to gain ...

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Bacteria: Single-celled microorganisms that can exist either as independent (free-living) ...

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Bacterium: The singular of bacteria.

CDC: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US agency charged with tracking a...

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DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid. One of two types of molecules that encode genetic information...

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DNA polymerase: An enzyme that catalyzes (speeds) the polymerization of DNA. DNA polymeras...

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DNA sequence: The precise ordering of the bases (A, T, G, C) from which DNA is composed. B...

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Electrophoresis: A method used in clinical and research laboratories for separating molecu...

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Enzyme: A protein (or protein-based molecule) that speeds up a chemical reaction in a livi...

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Forensic: Dealing with the application of scientific knowledge to legal problems and legal...

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Fungi: Plural of fungus.

Gel electrophoresis: The process in which molecules (such as proteins, DNA, or RNA fragmen...

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Genetic: Having to do with genes and genetic
information.

Guanine: One of the four bases in DNA that make up the letters ATGC. Guanine is the "G". T...

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HIV: Acronym for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the cause of AIDS (acquired immunodefi...

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Hydrogen: The most plentiful element in the universe and one present in all organic compou...

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Isolate: A group in which mating is always between members of the group. For example, the ...

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Marker: A piece of DNA that lies on a chromosome so close to a gene that the marker and t...

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Mitochondria: Structures located in the cell's cytoplasm outside the nucleus. Mitochondria...

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Molecule: The smallest unit of a substance that can exist alone and retain the character o...

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Mycobacterium: A large family of bacteria that have unusually waxy cell walls that are res...

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Nucleotide: A subunit of DNA or RNA that consists of a nitrogenous base (A, G, T, or C in ...

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Parasite: A plant or an animal organism that lives in or on another and takes its nourishm...

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Pathogenic: Capable of causing disease. For example, pathogenic E. coli are Eschericia col...

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Probability: The likelihood that something will happen. For example, a probability of less...

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Pus: A thick, whitish-yellow fluid that results from the accumulation of white blood cells...

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Restriction enzyme: An enzyme from bacteria that can recognize specific base sequences in ...

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Reverse transcriptase: An enzyme that permits DNA to be made, using RNA as the template. A...

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RNA: Ribonucleic acid.

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RT-PCR: a highly sensitive technique for the detection and quantitation of mRNA (messenger...

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Sequencing: Determining the order of nucleotides (base sequences) in a DNA or RNA molecule...

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Synthesis: Putting together different entities to make a whole which is new and different....

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Virus: A microorganism that is smaller than a bacterium that cannot grow or reproduce apar...

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Viruses: Small living particles that can infect cells and change how the cells function. I...

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