Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (cont.)
If diagnosed and treated early, the patient outcome is good. The outcome may not be as good if individuals wait too long before treatment and/or continue to engage in unsafe sexual practices. Complications that can occur include:
- Tubal damage and scarring can result in infertility. PID is the most common cause of infertility in women. Following a single episode of PID, 8% of women were infertile; after two episodes, 19.5% of women were infertile; and after three or more episodes, 40% of women were infertile.
- Ectopic pregnancy rates are 12%-15% higher in women who have had an episode of pelvic inflammatory disease.
- Ovarian abscesses can occur after an episode of PID. Untreated PID also puts you at risk for a tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA). Rupture of a TOA can result in widespread peritoneal infection with shock and can be fatal.
- Females diagnosed with PID are at increased risk of getting PID again. As many as one-third of women who have had PID will have the disease at least one more time. With each case, the risk of becoming infertile is increased.
- Chronic pelvic pain is defined as pain in the reproductive organs or pelvis of at least six months duration that is severe enough to impact a woman's functioning. The pain may occur both during and/or apart from the menstrual period. As many as one-third of women with PID develop chronic pelvic pain, although the exact reasons for this are unclear. Chronic pelvic pain may be related to the scarring and inflammation associated with PID and occurs in up to 18% of women with PID.
- Enlargement of a Fallopian tube is known as hydrosalpinx. After an episode of PID, the damaged Fallopian tube can become blocked, fluid-filled and enlarged.
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 6/10/2014
Must Read Articles Related to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Adhesions, General and After Surgery
Adhesions are bands of scar tissue that form over organs. Adhesions can occur in the abdomen, pelvic region, or around the heart. Adhesions generally do not cau...learn more >>
Cervicitis is an infection of the lower genital tract (inflammation of the cervix). Cervicitis may be caused by STD's or injuries to the cervix. Cervicitis symp...learn more >>
Chlamydia is a sexual transmitted disease (STD) transmitted when people have sexual relations. Often, there are no symptoms. Chlamydia is caused by the bacteriu...learn more >>
Patient Comments & Reviews
The eMedicineHealth doctors ask about Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID):