Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (cont.)
If diagnosed and treated early, the patient outcome is good. The outcome may
not be as good if individuals wait too long before treatment and/or continue to
engage in unsafe sexual practices. Complications that can occur include:
- Tubal damage and scarring can result in infertility. PID is the most common
cause of infertility in women. Following a single episode of PID, 8% of women
were infertile; after two episodes, 19.5% of women were infertile; and after
three or more episodes, 40% of women were infertile.
- Ectopic pregnancy rates are 12%-15% higher in women who have had an episode
of pelvic inflammatory disease.
- Ovarian abscesses can occur after an episode of PID. Untreated PID also
puts you at risk for a tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA). Rupture of a TOA can result
in widespread peritoneal infection with shock and can be fatal.
- Females diagnosed with PID are at increased risk of getting PID again. As
many as one-third of women who have had PID will have the disease at least one
more time. With each case, the risk of becoming infertile is increased.
- Chronic pelvic pain is defined as pain in the reproductive organs or pelvis
of at least six months duration that is severe enough to impact a woman's
functioning. The pain may occur both during and/or apart from the menstrual
period. As many as one-third of women with PID develop chronic pelvic pain,
although the exact reasons for this are unclear. Chronic pelvic pain may be
related to the scarring and inflammation associated with PID and occurs in up to
18% of women with PID.
- Enlargement of a Fallopian tube is known as hydrosalpinx. After an episode
of PID, the damaged Fallopian tube can become blocked, fluid-filled and
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