Pernicious Anemia (Vitamin B-12 Deficiency) Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Pernicious Anemia (Vitamin B-12 Deficiency) article.

Absorb: 1. To take something in, as through the skin or the intestine.
2....

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Absorption: Uptake. For example, intestinal absorption is the uptake of food (or other sub...

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Anemia: The condition of having a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells or quantity ...

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Aplastic anemia: Anemia due to failure of the bone marrow to produce red and white blood c...

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Arms: An appendage in anatomy and in clinical trials. See: Arm.

Aspiration: Removal of a sample of fluid and cells through a needle. Aspiration also re...

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Autoimmune: Pertaining to autoimmunity, a misdirected immune response that occurs when the...

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Autoimmune process: A process in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys body ...

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Biopsy: The removal of a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope to check for ...

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Bone marrow: The soft blood-forming tissue that fills the cavities of bones and contains f...

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Bone marrow aspiration: The removal of a small amount of liquid bone marrow through a need...

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Bone marrow biopsy: The removal of a sample of bone marrow and a small amount of bone thro...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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CBC: A commonly used abbreviation in medicine that stands for complete blood count, a set...

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Celiac disease: A disorder resulting from an immune reaction to gluten, a protein found in...

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Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c...

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Chemotherapy: 1. In the original sense, a chemical that binds to and specifically k...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Cobalamin: Also called vitamin B12. A vitamin important for the normal formation of red bl...

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Crohn's disease: A chronic inflammatory disease, primarily involving the small and large ...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Dizziness: Painless head discomfort with many possible causes including disturbances of ...

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Fatigue: A condition characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency ...

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Fecal: Relating to the feces, the stool. The excrement discharged from the intestines.

Folate: Folic acid, one of the B vitamins that is a key factor in the synthesis (the makin...

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Folic acid: One of the B vitamins that is a key factor in the synthesis (the making) of nu...

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Gastrectomy: Surgery to remove part or all of the 'stomach.

Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach.

Gastrointestinal: Adjective referring collectively to the stomach and small and large inte...

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Gastrointestinal tract: The stomach and intestines. Abbreviated GI tract.

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Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Heart failure: Inability of the heart to keep up with the demands on it and, specifically...

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Hemoglobin: The oxygen-carrying pigment and predominant protein in the red blood cells. He...

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Homocysteine: An amino acid that is produced by the human body, usually as a byproduct of ...

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Immune: Protected against infection, usually by the presence of antibodies.

Immune system: A complex system that is responsible for distinguishing a person from every...

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Incidence: The frequency with which something, such as a disease or trait, appears in a pa...

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Incontinence: The inability to control excretions, to hold urine in the bladder, or to kee...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Inflammation: A localized reaction that produces redness, warmth, swelling, and pain as a ...

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Intestine: The long, tubelike organ in the abdomen that completes the process of digestion...

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Intrinsic: 1. An essential or inherent part of a something such as a structure.
...

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Iron: An essential mineral. Iron is necessary for the transport of oxygen (via hemoglobin ...

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Marrow: The bone marrow.

Memory: 1. The ability to recover information about past events or knowledge. ...

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Microscope: An optical instrument that augments the power of the eye to see small objects....

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Nasal: Having to do with the nose.

Neurological: Having to do with the nerves or the nervous system as, for example, a neurol...

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Nutrition: 1) The science or practice of taking in and utilizing foods. 2) A nourishing ...

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Oxygen: The odorless gas that is present in the air and necessary to maintain life. Oxygen...

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Paraplegia: Paralysis of the lower part of the body, including the legs.

Peripheral: Situated away from the center, as opposed to centrally located.

Pernicious anemia: Low red blood cell count caused by inadequate vitamin B12. Abbreviated ...

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Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Red blood cell: The blood cell that carries oxygen. Red cells contain hemoglobin and it is...

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Rule out: Term used in medicine, meaning to eliminate or exclude something from considera...

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Shortness of breath: Difficulty in breathing. Medically referred to as dyspnea. Shortness ...

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Spasticity: A state of increased tone of a muscle (and an increase in the deep tendon refl...

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Stomach: The digestive organ that is located in the upper abdomen, under the ribs. The upp...

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Stomach cancer: Cancer of the stomach, the main organ that holds food for digestion. World...

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Stress: In a medical or biological context stress is a physical, mental, or emotional fact...

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Sublingual: Underneath the tongue. For example, a sublingual medication is a type of lozen...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Thyroid: 1. The thyroid gland. Also, pertaining to the thyroid gland. 2. A p...

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Tongue: A strong muscle that is anchored to the floor of the mouth. The tongue is covered ...

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Urinary: Having to do with the function or anatomy of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or ur...

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Urinary incontinence: The unintentional loss of urine. Inability to hold urine in the blad...

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Vitamin B12: A vitamin important for the normal formation of red blood cells and the healt...

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Vitiligo: A condition in which the skin turns white due to the loss of pigment from the me...

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