Pilonidal Cyst (cont.)
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Pilonidal Cyst Causes
Although there are several theories as to the causes and origins of pilonidal disease, most researchers today believe that pilonidal cysts are acquired (rather than congenital, or inborn) and that they are caused by the penetration of loose hairs into the skin through dilated hair follicles into the subcutaneous tissues. In response to this ingrown hair, a local inflammatory reaction causes a cystic structure to form around the hair and the other skin debris. Excessive pressure or repetitive trauma to the sacrococcygeal area are thought to predispose individuals to develop the cyst or to irritate an already existing pilonidal cyst.
During World War II, more than 80,000 U.S. soldiers developed pilonidal cysts requiring hospitalization. Because so many of the afflicted servicemen rode in bumpy Jeeps for prolonged periods of time, the condition was termed "Jeep disease." It was during this time that many investigators produced articles on the treatment and management of pilonidal disease.
In addition to male gender, other risk factors for the development of pilonidal cysts include a family history of pilonidal cysts, occupations which require prolonged sitting, hirsute (hairy or having copious hair) individuals, and the presence of a deep natal cleft (the cleft between the buttocks). Obese individuals are more likely to experience a recurrence of pilonidal cysts.
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