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Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (cont.)

Web Links

American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

National Center for PTSD, What Is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

National Institute of Mental Health, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

National Mental Health Association, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

MedlinePlus, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Medically reviewed by Marina Katz, MD; American Board of Psychiatry & Neurology


Bradley, R., J. Greene, et al. "A Multi Dimensional Meta-analysis of Psychotherapy for PTSD." AMJ Psychiatry 162.2 (2005): 214-227.

Bryant, R.A., et al. "A Study of the Protective Function of Acute Morphine Administration on Subsequent Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder." Biological Psychiatry 65.5 Mar. 1, 2009: 438-440.

Campbell, K. "One Year Later: Post-Traumatic Stress Takes Toll on Children." Facts of Life: Issue Briefings for Health Reporters 7.9 Sept. 2002.

Cohen, Beth E., Charles R. Marmar, et al. "Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease: Findings From the Heart and Soul Study." Arch Gen Psychiatry 66.11 (2009): 1214-1220.

Delahanty, Douglas L., and Nicole R. Nugent. "Predicting PTSD Prospectively Based on Prior Trauma History and Immediate Biological Responses." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1071 July 2006: 27–40. doi: 10.1196/annals.1364.003

Holbrook, T.L., M.R. Galarneau, et al. "Morphine Use After Combat Injury in Iraq and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder." N Engl J Med 362.2 Jan. 14, 2010: 110-117.

Keane, T.M., Barlow, D.H. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. In: Barlow DH. Anxiety and its disorders. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2001.

Langeland, W., and M. Oliff. "Psychobiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Pediatric Injury Patients: A Review of the Literature." Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 32.1 (2008): 161-174.

Schlenger, W.E., Caddell, J.M., Ebert, L., et al. Psychological reactions to terrorist attacks: findings from the National Studyof Americans' Reactions to September 11. JAMA. Aug 7 2002;288(5):581-8. .

Schuster, M.A., Stein, B.D., Jaycox, L., et al. A national survey of stress reactions after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. N Engl J Med. Nov 15 2001;345(20):1507-12.

Yehuda, R., Bierer, L.M. "Transgenerational Transmission of Cortisol and PTSD Risk." Prog Brain Res 167 (2008): 121-135.

Yehuda, R., Halligan, S., Grossman, R. Childhood trauma and risk for PTSD: Relationship to intergenerational effects of trauma, parental PTSD and cortisol excretion. Stress Dev. 2001;13:731-751.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 6/24/2014
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The formal diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)was not introduced into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders until its third publication in 1980.

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