Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
John P. Cunha, DO, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Cunha's educational background includes a BS in Biology from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and a DO from the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences in Kansas City, MO. He completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey.
An adequate intake of some vitamins may help prevent some of the symptoms of PMS, although this has not been conclusively established.
Vitamin B6 - 100 mg per day maximum (larger doses sometimes cause serious side effects).
The patient can also take a B-complex that includes all the B vitamins. Vitamin B6 may take the edge off irritability and reduce fatigue and depression.
Vitamin E - 400 IU per day (maximum) may be helpful in reducing breast tenderness.
Calcium - 1,000-1,200 mg per day of elemental calcium (the labels on foods and supplements give the amount of elemental calcium they contain) may reduce bloating, body aches, anxiety, or depression.
Magnesium - Some small studies of magnesium supplementation have shown that 200 to 360 mg of magnesium taken up to 3 times per day may provide some relief.
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a recurrent luteal phase condition characterized by physical, psychological, and behavioral changes of sufficient severity to result in deterioration of interpersonal relationships and normal activity.