Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Smoking is bad for the bones as well as for the heart and lungs.
In women, nicotine inhibits the bone protective effect of estrogen.
Women who smoke often go through menopause earlier, which hastens the development of osteoporosis because bone density decreases more rapidly after menopause. Women who smoke and choose hormone replacement therapy after menopause may require higher doses of hormones and have more complications.
Men smokers are at risk of developing osteoporosis.
Limit alcohol intake
Regular consumption of 2-3 ounces of alcohol a day may be damaging to bones, even in young women and men. Heavy drinkers are more likely to have bone loss and fractures. This is related to both poor nutrition and increased risk of falling.
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