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Prostate Cancer (cont.)

Radiation Therapy

The goal of radiotherapy for men with localized prostate cancer is to deliver enough radiation to the tumor while minimizing radiation to adjacent normal tissues.

Two types of radiation therapy are used in prostate cancer -- external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy. Both are used to treat prostate cancer that has not spread outside the prostate. In terms of survival, radiotherapy appears to achieve similar results as those obtained with radical prostatectomy.

  • External-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) involves targeting a beam of high-energy radiation directly at the localized cancer.
  • Radiation therapy has also been used to treat cancer in which there has been localized spread of the cancer outside of the prostate in combination with other types of treatment (surgery).
  • Side effects of external beam radiation are usually temporary and may include:
    • Skin burning or irritation
    • Hair loss at the area where the radiation beam goes through the skin
    • Severe fatigue
    • Diarrhea
    • Erectile dysfunction
    • Urinary frequency, discomfort at urination, and/or urgency
    • Some studies have shown an increased risk of bladder and rectal cancer with radiotherapy. However, the magnitude of this risk remains small and the risk of dying from a secondary malignancy at 10 to 15 years after treatment is no higher than the perioperative mortality associated with radical prostatectomy.
  • Brachytherapy (internal or implanted radiation) is a variation of radiation therapy in which a small radioactive pellet is implanted into the prostate. An imaging technique, such as transurethral ultrasound (TRUS), CT, or MRI, is used to accurately place the radioactive pellets. This provides radiation to a smaller area than external-beam radiation and minimizes exposure of surrounding normal tissue. The pellets provide radioactivity for weeks to months and can simply be left in place once exhausted. In comparison to external beam radiotherapy, this treatment requires only a one-time treatment, rather than the daily therapy required in EBRT.
  • The main complications of brachytherapy are:
    • Urinary symptoms including transient urinary frequency, urgency, and discomfort at urination
    • Erectile dysfunction
    • Gastrointestinal symptoms
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