Prostate Cancer Screening
Screening for prostate cancer—checking for signs of the disease when there are no symptoms—is done with the digital rectal exam and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. In the United States, about 17 out of 100 men will get prostate cancer. Out of these 17 men, 3 will die of prostate cancer. This means that 97 out of 100 men will die from something other than prostate cancer.2
The number of deaths caused by prostate cancer has dropped over the past 20 years. The decrease has been linked to more cases of early diagnosis through PSA testing and to better cancer treatment. But it is not yet known if PSA testing actually saves lives or if the benefits of having PSA screening are worth the harms of follow-up tests and cancer treatments.
Finding prostate cancer early leads you to some big decisions. Most prostate cancer grows slowly. And the side effects of treatment can change your quality of life—mainly not being able to have an erection (impotence) and not being able to control urination (incontinence). If you are older with other serious health problems, these side effects may seem worse than early-stage cancer that may not grow much during your lifetime. But for active or younger men, treatment may help them live longer.
So before you decide to have a PSA test, talk with your doctor. Ask about your risk for prostate cancer, and discuss the pros and cons of testing. Some men will not want to live with the side effects of treatment. Other men are more concerned about survival. It is important to learn all you can and talk to your doctor before making a decision.
For more information, see the topic Prostate Cancer.
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