Raynaud Phenomenon Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Raynaud Phenomenon article.

Acute: Of abrupt onset, in reference to a disease. Acute often also connotes an illness th...

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Alternative medicine: Healing arts not taught in traditional Western medical schools that ...

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Amputation: Removal of part or all of a body part that is enclosed by skin. Amputation can...

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Angina: Chest pain due to an inadequate supply of oxygen to the heart muscle. The pain is ...

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Angiography: A procedure performed to view blood vessels after injecting them with a radio...

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Angiotensin: A family of peptides that constrict blood vessels. Narrowing the diameter of ...

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Angiotensin converting enzyme: Usually abbreviated ACE.

Arms: An appendage in anatomy and in clinical trials. See: Arm.

Arthritis: Inflammation of a joint. When joints are inflamed they can develop stiffness, w...

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Atherosclerosis: A process of progressive thickening and hardening of the walls of medium-...

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Autoimmune: Pertaining to autoimmunity, a misdirected immune response that occurs when the...

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Bilateral: Affecting both sides. For example, bilateral arthritis affects joints on both t...

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Biofeedback: A method of treatment that uses a monitor to measure patients' physiologic in...

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Birth control: Birth control is the use of any practices, methods, or devices to prevent p...

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Blood clots: Blood that has been converted from a liquid to a solid state. Also called a t...

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Calcinosis: An abnormal deposit of calcium salts in body tissues. Examples include the cal...

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Calcium: A mineral found mainly in the hard part of bones, where it is stored. Calcium is ...

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Cardiac: Having to do with the heart.

Cardiovascular: Relating to the circulatory system, which comprises the heart and blood ve...

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Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression and irritation of the median nerve as it passes under ...

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Cervical: Having to do with any kind of neck, including the neck on which the head is perc...

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Chloride: The major anion (negatively charged substance) in the blood and extracellular fl...

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Circulation: In medicine, the movement of fluid through the body in a regular or circuitou...

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Collagen: The principal protein of the skin, tendons, cartilage, bone, and connective tiss...

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Common cold: A contagious viral upper respiratory tract infection. The common cold can be ...

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Compression: 1. The act of pressing together. As in a compression fracture, nerve c...

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Connective tissue: A material made up of fibers forming a framework and support structure...

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Connective tissue disease: A disease (autoimmune or otherwise) that attacks the collagen o...

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CREST syndrome: A limited form of scleroderma, a disease of connective tissue that involve...

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Cure: 1. To heal, to make well, to restore to good health. 2. A time withou...

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Diabetes: Refers to diabetes mellitus or, less often, to diabetes insipidus. Diabetes mell...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Discharge: 1.The flow of fluid from part of the body, such as from the nose or vag...

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Distal: The more (or most) distant of two (or more) things. For example, the distal end of...

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Dysfunction: Difficult function or abnormal function.

Enzyme: A protein (or protein-based molecule) that speeds up a chemical reaction in a livi...

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Erectile dysfunction: A consistent inability to sustain an erection sufficient for sexual ...

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Ergot: A fungus (Claviceps purpurea) that contaminates rye and wheat and that produces sub...

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Esophageal: Related to the esophagus.

Essential: In medicine, of unknown cause, as in essential hypertension (high blood pressur...

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Frostbite: Damage to tissues from freezing due to the formation of ice crystals within cel...

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Gangrene: Tissue death due to loss of adequate blood supply. Sometimes bacteria invade suc...

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Herbal: 1. An adjective, referring to herbs, as in an herbal tea.
2. A...

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Hypothyroid: Deficiency of thyroid hormone which is normally made by the thyroid gland wh...

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Idiopathic: Of unknown cause. Any disease that is of uncertain or unknown origin may be te...

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Injury: Harm or hurt. To harm, hurt, or wound. The word injure may be in physical or emot...

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Internal medicine: The medical specialty dedicated to the diagnosis and medical treatment ...

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Intervertebral disk: A pad of cartilage between two vertebrae that acts as a shock absorbe...

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Joint: The area where two bones are attached for the purpose of permitting body parts to m...

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Laboratory: A place for doing tests and research procedures, and for preparing chemicals a...

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Lips: Aside from the lips of the mouth, there are two pairs of lips at the entrance to the...

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Lupus: A chronic inflammatory disease that is caused by autoimmunity. Patients with lupus ...

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Medical history: 1. In clinical medicine, the patient's past and present which may ...

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Migraine: Usually, periodic attacks of headaches on one or both sides of the head. These ...

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Mixed connective tissue disease: A mixture of three diseases of connective tissue (the fra...

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Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Neck: The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constric...

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Necrotic: Dead. For example, necrotic tissue is dead tissue.

Nicotine: An alkaloid (a nitrogen-containing chemical) made by the tobacco plant or produc...

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Nitric oxide: A compound that is toxic but which, paradoxically, plays a number of importa...

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Nose: The external midline projection from the face. The purpose of the nose is to warm, c...

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Outlet: The exit or opening. The means by which something escapes.

Oxygen: The odorless gas that is present in the air and necessary to maintain life. Oxygen...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Palm: The grasping side of the hand; the flexor surface of the hand. In contrast to the ba...

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Peripheral: Situated away from the center, as opposed to centrally located.

Pharmacy: A location where prescription medications are sold. A pharmacy is constantly sup...

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Polycythemia: Too many red blood cells. The opposite of anemia. polycythemia formally exis...

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Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan...

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Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Raynaud's disease: A condition that results in discoloration of the skin on the fingers an...

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Raynaud's phenomenon: A condition resulting in discoloration of fingers and/or toes when a...

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Receptor: 1. In cell biology, a structure on the surface of a cell (or inside a cel...

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Recurrent: Appearing or occurring again. For example, a recurrent fever is a fever that ha...

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Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of joint...

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Rheumatoid factor: An antibody that is measurable in the blood and is used to diagnose rhe...

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Rule out: Term used in medicine, meaning to eliminate or exclude something from considera...

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Sclerodactyly: Localized thickening and tightness of the skin of the fingers or toes. Scle...

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Scleroderma: A disease of connective tissue that causes scar tissue (fibrosis) to form in ...

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Sclerosis: Localized hardening of skin. Sclerosis is generally caused by underlying diseas...

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Serotonin: A neurotransmitter that is involved in the transmission of nerve impulses. Sero...

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Serum: The clear liquid that can be separated from clotted blood. Serum differs from plas...

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Shoulder: A structure made up of two main bones: the scapula (shoulder blade) and the hume...

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Skin color: The color of skin which is complexly determined. Skin color depends on many fa...

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Smooth muscle: Along with skeletal and cardiac muscle, one of the types of muscle tissue i...

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Spinal cord: The major column of nerve tissue that is connected to the brain and lies with...

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Spine: 1) The column of bone known as the vertebral column, which surrounds and protects ...

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Stress: In a medical or biological context stress is a physical, mental, or emotional fact...

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Stroke: The sudden death of brain cells due to lack of oxygen, caused by blockage of blood...

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Surgeon: A physician who treats disease, injury, or deformity via operative or manual meth...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Sympathetic nervous system: A part of the nervous system that serves to accelerate the hea...

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Syndrome: A combination of symptoms and signs that together represent a disease process.

Systemic: Affecting the entire body. A systemic disease such as diabetes can affect the wh...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Thoracic: Pertaining to the chest. For example, the thoracic aorta is the part of the aort...

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Thoracic outlet syndrome: A condition that is due to compromise of blood vessels or nerve ...

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Trauma: A physical or emotional injury.

Trigger: Something that either sets off a disease in people who are genetically predispose...

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Ulceration: The process or fact of being eroded away, as by an ulcer.

Vascular: Relating to blood vessels. For example, the vascular system in the body includes...

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Vasculitis: A general term for a group of uncommon diseases that feature inflammation of t...

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Vasodilation: Widening of blood vessels that results from relaxation of the muscular walls...

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Vessel: A tube in the body that carries fluids. Examples of vessels are blood vessels and ...

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Vinyl chloride: A substance used in manufacturing plastics that is known to be toxic and c...

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Vital: Necessary to maintain life. For example, breathing is a vital function.

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