John P. Cunha, DO, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Cunha's educational background includes a BS in Biology from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and a DO from the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences in Kansas City, MO. He completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey.
Anorectal disorders are the most common causes of minor rectal bleeding.
Hemorrhoids: Hemorrhoids are swollen rectal veins in the anal and rectal area. They can cause burning, painful discomfort, and bleeding.
Internal hemorrhoids are small swellings that are easy to see and quite painful.
Anal itching is common.
Internal hemorrhoids are usually painless. A
rectal mass sensation may be noted with bowel movements.
Symptoms from the swelling (thrombosis) of the hemorrhoids are brought on by hard stools and straining with bowel movements. Treatment
of hemorrhoids focuses on relieving these symptoms with the use of stool bulking agents and softeners.
In cases of thrombosed hemorrhoids, a clot forms
within the swollen vein. This causes moderate to severe pain and requires minor surgery to remove them.
Anal fissure: This is a tear in the lining of the rectum caused by the passage of hard stools.
An occurrence can lead to mild rectal bleeding of bright red blood. Exposed nerves and vessels result in moderate to severe pain. Pain worsens with bowel movements then
decreases in between bowel movements.
In both hemorrhoids and
anal fissures, symptoms are generally improved with use of stool softeners and bulking agents, increasing
fiber in the diet, pain control, and frequent warm water baths.
Diverticula are out-pouchings that project from the bowel wall. Their development is caused by decreased fiber in the diet.
When the diverticula becomes inflamed and infected it is called diverticulitis.
People with this condition are usually older than 40 years of age, and it generally increases with age.
Stools are dark red or maroon. Pain is usually
absent but, when present, typically occurs in the left lower part of the abdomen.
Persistent bleeding, high fever, uncontrolled pain or other signs of
serious infection may mean hospitalization is necessary. Fewer than 6% of
patients with diverticulitis require surgery.
dysentery is commonly the source of infectious,