Running Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Running article.

Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Abdominal muscles: A large group of muscles in the front of the abdomen that assists in th...

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Absorb: 1. To take something in, as through the skin or the intestine.
2....

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Absorption: Uptake. For example, intestinal absorption is the uptake of food (or other sub...

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Achilles tendonitis: Inflammation in the tendon of the calf muscle, where it attaches to t...

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Aerobic: Oxygen-requiring. Aerobic bacteria need oxygen to grow. Aerobic exercise requires...

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Aerobic exercise: Brisk exercise that promotes the circulation of oxygen through the blood...

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Ankle: The ankle joint is complex. It is made up of two joints: the true ankle joint and ...

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Anxiety: A feeling of apprehension and fear, characterized by physical symptoms such as pa...

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Arms: An appendage in anatomy and in clinical trials. See: Arm.

Arthritis: Inflammation of a joint. When joints are inflamed they can develop stiffness, w...

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Autopsy: A postmortem examination. Also known as necropsy.

Blood pressure: The blood pressure is the pressure of the blood within the arteries. It is...

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Breathing: The process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through ...

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Calorie: A unit of food energy. The word calorie is ordinarily used instead of the more pr...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Cardiologist: A physician who specializes in treating heart disorders.

Cellulite: In popular language, deposits of fat that have a cottage cheese-like texture. M...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Colon: The long, coiled, tubelike organ that removes water from digested food. The remaini...

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Conditioning: 1) Exercise and practice to build the body up for either improved normal pe...

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Connective tissue: A material made up of fibers forming a framework and support structure...

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Dementia: Significant loss of intellectual abilities, such as memory capacity, that is sev...

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Depression: An illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and that affects the way...

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Diabetes: Usually refers to diabetes mellitus or, less often, to diabetes insipidus. Diabe...

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Disc: Shortened terminology for an intervertebral disc, a disk-shaped piece of specialized...

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Evolution: The continuing process of change.

Fasciitis: Inflammation of the fascia.

Father: (1) The male parent. (2) One who originates. For example, "Wilhelm Roentgen is con...

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Fatigue: A condition characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency ...

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Flat feet: Absence of an arch in the sole of the foot that causes the foot to lie flat whe...

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Foot type: The category into which a particular foot falls. Foot types are generally class...

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Gait: A manner of walking. Observation of gait can provide early diagnostic clues for a nu...

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Generic: 1. The chemical name of a drug. 2. A term referring to the chemical...

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Genes: The basic biological units of heredity. Segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nee...

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Genetic: Having to do with genes and genetic
information.

Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Heart attack: The death of heart muscle due to the loss of blood supply. The loss of bloo...

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Heart disease: Any disorder that affects the heart. Sometimes the term "heart disease" is ...

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Heart rate: The number of heartbeats per unit of time, usually per minute. The heart rate ...

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Injury: Harm or hurt. To harm, hurt, or wound. The word injure may be in physical or emot...

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Jaw: The movable junction of the bones below the mouth (the mandible) and the bone just ab...

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Joint: The area where two bones are attached for the purpose of permitting body parts to m...

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Knee: The knee is a joint which has three parts. The thigh bone (the femur) meets the lar...

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Leg: In popular usage, the part of the body from the top of the thigh down to the foot, an...

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Ligament: A tough band of connective tissue that connects various structures, such as two ...

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Lungs: The lungs are a pair of breathing organs located with the chest which remove carbon...

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Meditation: A typically self-directed practice for relaxing the body and calming the mind....

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Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

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MPH: Master of public health, a degree designating successful training in analyzing past, ...

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Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Neck: The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constric...

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Nose: The external midline projection from the face. The purpose of the nose is to warm, c...

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Objective: In a microscope, the objective (also called the objective lens) is the lens nea...

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Overweight: The term "overweight" is used in two different ways. In one sense it is a way ...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Plantar: Having to do with the sole of the foot.

Plantar fasciitis: Inflammation of the plantar fascia, the bowstring-like tissue that stre...

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Pronation: Rotation of the forearm and hand so that the palm is down (and the correspondin...

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Prostate: A gland within the male reproductive system that is located just below the blad...

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Prostate cancer: A malignant tumor of the prostate, the gland that produces some of the co...

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Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Quadriceps: Although the term "quadriceps" technically may refer to any four-headed muscle...

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Respiratory: Having to do with respiration.

Risk factor: Something that increases a person's chances of developing a disease. For exam...

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Sciatica: Pain that results from irritation of the sciatic nerve and typically radiates fr...

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Shin: 1. The tibia, the larger of the two bones in the lower leg.
2. T...

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Shock: In medicine, a critical condition that is brought on by a sudden drop in blood flow...

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Shoulder: A structure made up of two main bones: the scapula (shoulder blade) and the hume...

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Skull: The skull is a collection of bones which encase the brain and give form to the hea...

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Sleep: The body's rest cycle.

Sore: 1. (adjective) A popular term for painful, such as a sore throat. 2. (...

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Spine: 1) The column of bone known as the vertebral column, which surrounds and protects ...

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Stage: As regards cancer, the extent of a cancer, especially whether the disease has spre...

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Strain: 1. An injury to a tendon or muscle resulting from overuse or trauma. 2. A heredita...

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Stress: In a medical or biological context stress is a physical, mental, or emotional fact...

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Supination: Rotation of the arm or leg outward. In the case of supination of the arm, the ...

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Sweat: A colorless transparent acidic fluid with a distinctive odor secreted by the small ...

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Syndrome: A combination of symptoms and signs that together represent a disease process.

Tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon (the tissue by which muscle attaches to bone). Tendin...

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Tension: 1) The pressure within a vessel, such as blood pressure: the pressure within t...

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Tired: A feeling of a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency of accomplishment,...

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Treadmill: A machine with a moving strip on which one walks without moving forward. A trea...

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Vertebrae: The preferred plural of vertebra. (The alternate plural is vertebras.) See also...

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Weight loss: Weight loss is a decrease in body weight resulting from either voluntary (die...

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Wrist: The part of the hand that is nearest the forearm and consists of the carpal bones a...

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