School Refusal Topic Guide
School Refusal: School refusal occurs when a student will not go to school or frequently experiences severe distress related to school attendance. Symptoms and signs include protesting or crying every morning before school, missing the bus every day, or developing physical symptoms when it's time to go to school. Treatment of school refusal includes cognitive behavior therapy along with systematic desensitization, exposure therapy, and operant behavioral techniques.
Separation Anxiety Separation anxiety is a normal characteristic in infants and toddlers. Symptoms include reluctance to fall asleep, homesickness, nightmares, tantrums if separated from the primary caregiver, and feelings of anxiety. Treatment may incorporate positive reinforcement, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and antianxiety medications.
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